Proposal for witnessing non-classical light with the human eye

A. Dodel1, A. Mayinda1, E. Oudot1, A. Martin2, P. Sekatski3, J.-D. Bancal1, and N. Sangouard1

1Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
2Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Ch. de Pinchat 22, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
3Institut for Theoretische Physik, Universitat of Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria

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We give a complete proposal showing how to detect the non-classical nature of photonic states with naked eyes as detectors. The enabling technology is a sub-Poissonian photonic state that is obtained from single photons, displacement operations in phase space and basic non-photon-number-resolving detectors. We present a detailed statistical analysis of our proposal including imperfect photon creation and detection and a realistic model of the human eye. We conclude that a few tens of hours are sufficient to certify non-classical light with the human eye with a p-value of 10%.

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[1] Hou Shun Poh, Alessandro Cerè, Jean-Daniel Bancal, Yu Cai, Nicolas Sangouard, Valerio Scarani, and Christian Kurtsiefer, "Experimental many-pairs nonlocality", Physical Review A 96 2, 022101 (2017).

[2] M. Loulakis, G. Blatsios, C. S. Vrettou, and I. K. Kominis, "Quantum Biometrics with Retinal Photon Counting", Physical Review Applied 8 4, 044012 (2017).

[3] Dusan Sarenac, Connor Kapahi, Andrew E. Silva, David G. Cory, Ivar Taminiau, Benjamin Thompson, and Dmitry A. Pushin, "Direct discrimination of structured light by humans", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117 26, 14682 (2020).

[4] A. Margaritakis, G. Anyfantaki, K. Mouloudakis, A. Gratsea, and I. K. Kominis, "Spatially selective and quantum-statistics-limited light stimulus for retina biometrics and pupillometry", Applied Physics B 126 6, 99 (2020).

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