Feynman's circuit-to-Hamiltonian construction connects quantum computation and ground states of many-body quantum systems. Kitaev applied this construction to demonstrate QMA-completeness of the local Hamiltonian problem, and Aharanov et al. used it to show the equivalence of adiabatic computation and the quantum circuit model. In this work, we analyze the low energy properties of a class of modified circuit Hamiltonians, which include features like complex weights and branching transitions. For history states with linear clocks and complex weights, we develop a method for modifying the circuit propagation Hamiltonian to implement any desired distribution over the time steps of the circuit in a frustration-free ground state, and show that this can be used to obtain a constant output probability for universal adiabatic computation while retaining the $\Omega(T^{-2})$ scaling of the spectral gap, and without any additional overhead in terms of numbers of qubits. Furthermore, we establish limits on the increase in the ground energy due to input and output penalty terms for modified tridiagonal clocks with non-uniform distributions on the time steps by proving a tight $O(T^{-2})$ upper bound on the product of the spectral gap and ground state overlap with the endpoints of the computation. Using variational techniques which go beyond the $\Omega(T^{-3})$ scaling that follows from the usual geometrical lemma, we prove that the standard Feynman-Kitaev Hamiltonian already saturates this bound. We review the formalism of unitary labeled graphs which replace the usual linear clock by graphs that allow branching and loops, and we extend the $O(T^{-2})$ bound from linear clocks to this more general setting. In order to achieve this, we apply Chebyshev polynomials to generalize an upper bound on the spectral gap in terms of the graph diameter to the context of arbitrary Hermitian matrices.

Quantum 2, 94 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-09-19-94

]]>Feynman's circuit-to-Hamiltonian construction connects quantum computation and ground states of many-body quantum systems. Kitaev applied this construction to demonstrate QMA-completeness of the local Hamiltonian problem, and Aharanov et al. used it to show the equivalence of adiabatic computation and the quantum circuit model. In this work, we analyze the low energy properties of a class of modified circuit Hamiltonians, which include features like complex weights and branching transitions. For history states with linear clocks and complex weights, we develop a method for modifying the circuit propagation Hamiltonian to implement any desired distribution over the time steps of the circuit in a frustration-free ground state, and show that this can be used to obtain a constant output probability for universal adiabatic computation while retaining the $\Omega(T^{-2})$ scaling of the spectral gap, and without any additional overhead in terms of numbers of qubits. Furthermore, we establish limits on the increase in the ground energy due to input and output penalty terms for modified tridiagonal clocks with non-uniform distributions on the time steps by proving a tight $O(T^{-2})$ upper bound on the product of the spectral gap and ground state overlap with the endpoints of the computation. Using variational techniques which go beyond the $\Omega(T^{-3})$ scaling that follows from the usual geometrical lemma, we prove that the standard Feynman-Kitaev Hamiltonian already saturates this bound. We review the formalism of unitary labeled graphs which replace the usual linear clock by graphs that allow branching and loops, and we extend the $O(T^{-2})$ bound from linear clocks to this more general setting. In order to achieve this, we apply Chebyshev polynomials to generalize an upper bound on the spectral gap in terms of the graph diameter to the context of arbitrary Hermitian matrices.

]]>We present a quantum repeater scheme that is based on individual erbium and europium ions. Erbium ions are attractive because they emit photons at telecommunication wavelength, while europium ions offer exceptional spin coherence for long-term storage. Entanglement between distant erbium ions is created by photon detection. The photon emission rate of each erbium ion is enhanced by a microcavity with high Purcell factor, as has recently been demonstrated. Entanglement is then transferred to nearby europium ions for storage. Gate operations between nearby ions are performed using dynamically controlled electric-dipole coupling. These gate operations allow entanglement swapping to be employed in order to extend the distance over which entanglement is distributed. The deterministic character of the gate operations allows improved entanglement distribution rates in comparison to atomic ensemble-based protocols. We also propose an approach that utilizes multiplexing in order to enhance the entanglement distribution rate.

Quantum 2, 93 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-09-13-93

]]>We present a quantum repeater scheme that is based on individual erbium and europium ions. Erbium ions are attractive because they emit photons at telecommunication wavelength, while europium ions offer exceptional spin coherence for long-term storage. Entanglement between distant erbium ions is created by photon detection. The photon emission rate of each erbium ion is enhanced by a microcavity with high Purcell factor, as has recently been demonstrated. Entanglement is then transferred to nearby europium ions for storage. Gate operations between nearby ions are performed using dynamically controlled electric-dipole coupling. These gate operations allow entanglement swapping to be employed in order to extend the distance over which entanglement is distributed. The deterministic character of the gate operations allows improved entanglement distribution rates in comparison to atomic ensemble-based protocols. We also propose an approach that utilizes multiplexing in order to enhance the entanglement distribution rate.

]]>Bell-inequality violations establish that two systems share some quantum entanglement. We give a simple test to certify that two systems share an asymptotically large amount of entanglement, $n$ EPR states. The test is efficient: unlike earlier tests that play many games, in sequence or in parallel, our test requires only one or two CHSH games. One system is directed to play a CHSH game on a random specified qubit $i$, and the other is told to play games on qubits $\{i,j\}$, without knowing which index is $i$. The test is robust: a success probability within $\delta$ of optimal guarantees distance $O(n^{5/2} \sqrt{\delta})$ from $n$ EPR states. However, the test does not tolerate constant $\delta$; it breaks down for $\delta = \tilde\Omega (1/\sqrt{n})$. We give an adversarial strategy that succeeds within delta of the optimum probability using only $\tilde O(\delta^{-2})$ EPR states.

Quantum 2, 92 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-09-03-92

]]>Bell-inequality violations establish that two systems share some quantum entanglement. We give a simple test to certify that two systems share an asymptotically large amount of entanglement, $n$ EPR states. The test is efficient: unlike earlier tests that play many games, in sequence or in parallel, our test requires only one or two CHSH games. One system is directed to play a CHSH game on a random specified qubit $i$, and the other is told to play games on qubits $\{i,j\}$, without knowing which index is $i$. The test is robust: a success probability within $\delta$ of optimal guarantees distance $O(n^{5/2} \sqrt{\delta})$ from $n$ EPR states. However, the test does not tolerate constant $\delta$; it breaks down for $\delta = \tilde\Omega (1/\sqrt{n})$. We give an adversarial strategy that succeeds within delta of the optimum probability using only $\tilde O(\delta^{-2})$ EPR states.

]]>The dynamical Casimir effect is an intriguing phenomenon in which photons are generated from vacuum due to a non-adiabatic change in some boundary conditions. In particular, it connects the motion of an accelerated mechanical mirror to the generation of photons. While pioneering experiments demonstrating this effect exist, a conclusive measurement involving a mechanical generation is still missing. We show that a hybrid system consisting of a piezoelectric mechanical resonator coupled to a superconducting cavity may allow to electro-mechanically generate measurable photons from vacuum, intrinsically associated to the dynamical Casimir effect. Such an experiment may be achieved with current technology, based on film bulk acoustic resonators directly coupled to a superconducting cavity. Our results predict a measurable photon generation rate, which can be further increased through additional improvements such as using superconducting metamaterials.

Quantum 2, 91 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-09-03-91

]]>The dynamical Casimir effect is an intriguing phenomenon in which photons are generated from vacuum due to a non-adiabatic change in some boundary conditions. In particular, it connects the motion of an accelerated mechanical mirror to the generation of photons. While pioneering experiments demonstrating this effect exist, a conclusive measurement involving a mechanical generation is still missing. We show that a hybrid system consisting of a piezoelectric mechanical resonator coupled to a superconducting cavity may allow to electro-mechanically generate measurable photons from vacuum, intrinsically associated to the dynamical Casimir effect. Such an experiment may be achieved with current technology, based on film bulk acoustic resonators directly coupled to a superconducting cavity. Our results predict a measurable photon generation rate, which can be further increased through additional improvements such as using superconducting metamaterials.

]]>Correlations between different partitions of quantum systems play a central role in a variety of many-body quantum systems, and they have been studied exhaustively in experimental and theoretical research. Here, we investigate dynamical correlations in the time evolution of multiple parts of a composite quantum system. A rigorous measure to quantify correlations in quantum dynamics based on a full tomographic reconstruction of the quantum process has been introduced recently [Á. Rivas et al., New Journal of Physics, 17(6) 062001 (2015).]. In this work, we derive a lower bound for this correlation measure, which does not require full knowledge of the quantum dynamics. Furthermore we also extend the correlation measure to multipartite systems. We directly apply the developed methods to a trapped ion quantum information processor to experimentally characterize the correlations in quantum dynamics for two- and four-qubit systems. The method proposed and demonstrated in this work is scalable, platform-independent and applicable to other composite quantum systems and quantum information processing architectures. We apply the method to estimate spatial correlations in environmental noise processes, which are crucial for the performance of quantum error correction procedures.

Quantum 2, 90 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-09-03-90

]]>Correlations between different partitions of quantum systems play a central role in a variety of many-body quantum systems, and they have been studied exhaustively in experimental and theoretical research. Here, we investigate dynamical correlations in the time evolution of multiple parts of a composite quantum system. A rigorous measure to quantify correlations in quantum dynamics based on a full tomographic reconstruction of the quantum process has been introduced recently [Á. Rivas et al., New Journal of Physics, 17(6) 062001 (2015).]. In this work, we derive a lower bound for this correlation measure, which does not require full knowledge of the quantum dynamics. Furthermore we also extend the correlation measure to multipartite systems. We directly apply the developed methods to a trapped ion quantum information processor to experimentally characterize the correlations in quantum dynamics for two- and four-qubit systems. The method proposed and demonstrated in this work is scalable, platform-independent and applicable to other composite quantum systems and quantum information processing architectures. We apply the method to estimate spatial correlations in environmental noise processes, which are crucial for the performance of quantum error correction procedures.

]]>We introduce a definition of the fidelity function for multi-round quantum strategies, which we call the $\textit{strategy fidelity}$, that is a generalization of the fidelity function for quantum states. We provide many properties of the strategy fidelity including a Fuchs-van de Graaf relationship with the strategy norm. We also provide a general monotinicity result for both the strategy fidelity and strategy norm under the actions of strategy-to-strategy linear maps. We illustrate an operational interpretation of the strategy fidelity in the spirit of Uhlmann's Theorem and discuss its application to the security analysis of quantum protocols for interactive cryptographic tasks such as bit-commitment and oblivious string transfer. Our analysis is general in the sense that the actions of the protocol need not be fully specified, which is in stark contrast to most other security proofs. Lastly, we provide a semidefinite programming formulation of the strategy fidelity.

Quantum 2, 89 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-09-03-89

]]>We introduce a definition of the fidelity function for multi-round quantum strategies, which we call the $\textit{strategy fidelity}$, that is a generalization of the fidelity function for quantum states. We provide many properties of the strategy fidelity including a Fuchs-van de Graaf relationship with the strategy norm. We also provide a general monotinicity result for both the strategy fidelity and strategy norm under the actions of strategy-to-strategy linear maps. We illustrate an operational interpretation of the strategy fidelity in the spirit of Uhlmann's Theorem and discuss its application to the security analysis of quantum protocols for interactive cryptographic tasks such as bit-commitment and oblivious string transfer. Our analysis is general in the sense that the actions of the protocol need not be fully specified, which is in stark contrast to most other security proofs. Lastly, we provide a semidefinite programming formulation of the strategy fidelity.

]]>Majorana-based quantum computing seeks to use the non-local nature of Majorana zero modes to store and manipulate quantum information in a topologically protected way. While noise is anticipated to be significantly suppressed in such systems, finite temperature and system size result in residual errors. In this work, we connect the underlying physical error processes in Majorana-based systems to the noise models used in a fault tolerance analysis. Standard qubit-based noise models built from Pauli operators do not capture leading order noise processes arising from quasiparticle poisoning events, thus it is not obvious $\textit{a priori}$ that such noise models can be usefully applied to a Majorana-based system. We develop stochastic Majorana noise models that are generalizations of the standard qubit-based models and connect the error probabilities defining these models to parameters of the physical system. Using these models, we compute pseudo-thresholds for the $d=5$ Bacon-Shor subsystem code. Our results emphasize the importance of correlated errors induced in multi-qubit measurements. Moreover, we find that for sufficiently fast quasiparticle relaxation the errors are well described by Pauli operators. This work bridges the divide between physical errors in Majorana-based quantum computing architectures and the significance of these errors in a quantum error correcting code.

Quantum 2, 88 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-09-03-88

]]>Majorana-based quantum computing seeks to use the non-local nature of Majorana zero modes to store and manipulate quantum information in a topologically protected way. While noise is anticipated to be significantly suppressed in such systems, finite temperature and system size result in residual errors. In this work, we connect the underlying physical error processes in Majorana-based systems to the noise models used in a fault tolerance analysis. Standard qubit-based noise models built from Pauli operators do not capture leading order noise processes arising from quasiparticle poisoning events, thus it is not obvious $\textit{a priori}$ that such noise models can be usefully applied to a Majorana-based system. We develop stochastic Majorana noise models that are generalizations of the standard qubit-based models and connect the error probabilities defining these models to parameters of the physical system. Using these models, we compute pseudo-thresholds for the $d=5$ Bacon-Shor subsystem code. Our results emphasize the importance of correlated errors induced in multi-qubit measurements. Moreover, we find that for sufficiently fast quasiparticle relaxation the errors are well described by Pauli operators. This work bridges the divide between physical errors in Majorana-based quantum computing architectures and the significance of these errors in a quantum error correcting code.

]]>Ernst Specker considered a particular feature of quantum theory to be especially fundamental, namely that pairwise joint measurability of sharp measurements implies their global joint measurability ($\href{https://vimeo.com/52923835}{vimeo.com/52923835}$). To date, Specker's principle seemed incapable of singling out quantum theory from the space of all general probabilistic theories. In particular, its well-known consequence for experimental statistics, the principle of consistent exclusivity, does not rule out the set of correlations known as almost quantum, which is strictly larger than the set of quantum correlations. Here we show that, contrary to the popular belief, Specker's principle cannot be satisfied in any theory that yields almost quantum correlations.

Quantum 2, 87 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-08-27-87

]]>Ernst Specker considered a particular feature of quantum theory to be especially fundamental, namely that pairwise joint measurability of sharp measurements implies their global joint measurability ($\href{https://vimeo.com/52923835}{vimeo.com/52923835}$). To date, Specker's principle seemed incapable of singling out quantum theory from the space of all general probabilistic theories. In particular, its well-known consequence for experimental statistics, the principle of consistent exclusivity, does not rule out the set of correlations known as almost quantum, which is strictly larger than the set of quantum correlations. Here we show that, contrary to the popular belief, Specker's principle cannot be satisfied in any theory that yields almost quantum correlations.

]]>In quantum cryptography, device-independent (DI) protocols can be certified secure without requiring assumptions about the inner workings of the devices used to perform the protocol. In order to display nonlocality, which is an essential feature in DI protocols, the device must consist of at least two separate components sharing entanglement. This raises a fundamental question: how much entanglement is needed to run such DI protocols? We present a two-device protocol for DI random number generation (DIRNG) which produces approximately $n$ bits of randomness starting from $n$ pairs of arbitrarily weakly entangled qubits. We also consider a variant of the protocol where $m$ singlet states are diluted into $n$ partially entangled states before performing the first protocol, and show that the number $m$ of singlet states need only scale sublinearly with the number $n$ of random bits produced. Operationally, this leads to a DIRNG protocol between distant laboratories that requires only a sublinear amount of quantum communication to prepare the devices.

Quantum 2, 86 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-08-22-86

]]>In quantum cryptography, device-independent (DI) protocols can be certified secure without requiring assumptions about the inner workings of the devices used to perform the protocol. In order to display nonlocality, which is an essential feature in DI protocols, the device must consist of at least two separate components sharing entanglement. This raises a fundamental question: how much entanglement is needed to run such DI protocols? We present a two-device protocol for DI random number generation (DIRNG) which produces approximately $n$ bits of randomness starting from $n$ pairs of arbitrarily weakly entangled qubits. We also consider a variant of the protocol where $m$ singlet states are diluted into $n$ partially entangled states before performing the first protocol, and show that the number $m$ of singlet states need only scale sublinearly with the number $n$ of random bits produced. Operationally, this leads to a DIRNG protocol between distant laboratories that requires only a sublinear amount of quantum communication to prepare the devices.

]]>Randomized benchmarking provides a tool for obtaining precise quantitative estimates of the average error rate of a physical quantum channel. Here we define real randomized benchmarking, which enables a separate determination of the average error rate in the real and complex parts of the channel. This provides more fine-grained information about average error rates with approximately the same cost as the standard protocol. The protocol requires only averaging over the real Clifford group, a subgroup of the full complex Clifford group, and makes use of the fact that it forms an orthogonal 2-design. It therefore allows benchmarking of fault-tolerant gates for an encoding which does not contain the full Clifford group transversally. Furthermore, our results are especially useful when considering quantum computations on rebits (or real encodings of complex computations), in which case the real Clifford group now plays the role of the complex Clifford group when studying stabilizer circuits.

Quantum 2, 85 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-08-22-85

]]>Randomized benchmarking provides a tool for obtaining precise quantitative estimates of the average error rate of a physical quantum channel. Here we define real randomized benchmarking, which enables a separate determination of the average error rate in the real and complex parts of the channel. This provides more fine-grained information about average error rates with approximately the same cost as the standard protocol. The protocol requires only averaging over the real Clifford group, a subgroup of the full complex Clifford group, and makes use of the fact that it forms an orthogonal 2-design. It therefore allows benchmarking of fault-tolerant gates for an encoding which does not contain the full Clifford group transversally. Furthermore, our results are especially useful when considering quantum computations on rebits (or real encodings of complex computations), in which case the real Clifford group now plays the role of the complex Clifford group when studying stabilizer circuits.

]]>A discrete-time quantum walk (QW) is essentially a unitary operator driving the evolution of a single particle on the lattice. Some QWs have familiar physics PDEs as their continuum limit. Some slight generalization of them (allowing for prior encoding and larger neighbourhoods) even have the curved spacetime Dirac equation, as their continuum limit. In the $(1+1)-$dimensional massless case, this equation decouples as scalar transport equations with tunable speeds. We characterise and construct all those QWs that lead to scalar transport with tunable speeds. The local coin operator dictates that speed; we provide concrete techniques to tune the speed of propagation, by making use only of a finite number of coin operators-differently from previous models, in which the speed of propagation depends upon a continuous parameter of the quantum coin. The interest of such a discretization is twofold : to allow for easier experimental implementations on the one hand, and to evaluate ways of quantizing the metric field, on the other.

Quantum 2, 84 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-08-22-84

]]>A discrete-time quantum walk (QW) is essentially a unitary operator driving the evolution of a single particle on the lattice. Some QWs have familiar physics PDEs as their continuum limit. Some slight generalization of them (allowing for prior encoding and larger neighbourhoods) even have the curved spacetime Dirac equation, as their continuum limit. In the $(1+1)-$dimensional massless case, this equation decouples as scalar transport equations with tunable speeds. We characterise and construct all those QWs that lead to scalar transport with tunable speeds. The local coin operator dictates that speed; we provide concrete techniques to tune the speed of propagation, by making use only of a finite number of coin operators-differently from previous models, in which the speed of propagation depends upon a continuous parameter of the quantum coin. The interest of such a discretization is twofold : to allow for easier experimental implementations on the one hand, and to evaluate ways of quantizing the metric field, on the other.

]]>We show that a two-level atom resonantly coupled to one of the modes of a cavity field can be used as a sensitive tool to measure the proper acceleration of a combined atom-cavity system. To achieve it we investigate the relation between the transition probability of a two-level atom placed within an ideal cavity and study how it is affected by the acceleration of the whole. We indicate how to choose the position of the atom as well as its characteristic frequency in order to maximize the sensitivity to acceleration.

Quantum 2, 83 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-08-18-83

]]>We show that a two-level atom resonantly coupled to one of the modes of a cavity field can be used as a sensitive tool to measure the proper acceleration of a combined atom-cavity system. To achieve it we investigate the relation between the transition probability of a two-level atom placed within an ideal cavity and study how it is affected by the acceleration of the whole. We indicate how to choose the position of the atom as well as its characteristic frequency in order to maximize the sensitivity to acceleration.

]]>The detection of nonlocal correlations in a Bell experiment implies almost by definition some intrinsic randomness in the measurement outcomes. For given correlations, or for a given Bell violation, the amount of randomness predicted by quantum physics, quantified by the guessing probability, can generally be bounded numerically. However, currently only a few exact analytic solutions are known for violations of the bipartite Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. Here, we study the randomness in a Bell experiment where three parties test the tripartite Mermin-Bell inequality. We give tight upper bounds on the guessing probabilities associated with one and two of the parties' measurement outcomes as a function of the Mermin inequality violation. Finally, we discuss the possibility of device-independent secret sharing based on the Mermin inequality and argue that the idea seems unlikely to work.

Quantum 2, 82 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-08-17-82

]]>The detection of nonlocal correlations in a Bell experiment implies almost by definition some intrinsic randomness in the measurement outcomes. For given correlations, or for a given Bell violation, the amount of randomness predicted by quantum physics, quantified by the guessing probability, can generally be bounded numerically. However, currently only a few exact analytic solutions are known for violations of the bipartite Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. Here, we study the randomness in a Bell experiment where three parties test the tripartite Mermin-Bell inequality. We give tight upper bounds on the guessing probabilities associated with one and two of the parties' measurement outcomes as a function of the Mermin inequality violation. Finally, we discuss the possibility of device-independent secret sharing based on the Mermin inequality and argue that the idea seems unlikely to work.

]]>All articles published in Quantum and their meta-data are now securely and permanently preserved in the CLOCKSS Archive.

In addition to our own backup strategy, which involves off-site storage of backups in multiple physically separate locations and a thoroughly tested backup-and-restore procedure, and the availability of all papers on the arXiv, this adds another layer of protection to ensure that all scientific works published in Quantum are permanently preserved and remain accessible to the scientific community.

]]>We provide a fine-grained definition for monogamous measure of entanglement that does not invoke any particular monogamy relation. Our definition is given in terms an equality, as oppose to inequality, that we call the "disentangling condition". We relate our definition to the more traditional one, by showing that it generates standard monogamy relations. We then show that all quantum Markov states satisfy the disentangling condition for any entanglement monotone. In addition, we demonstrate that entanglement monotones that are given in terms of a convex roof extension are monogamous if they are monogamous on pure states, and show that for any quantum state that satisfies the disentangling condition, its entanglement of formation equals the entanglement of assistance. We characterize all bipartite mixed states with this property, and use it to show that the G-concurrence is monogamous. In the case of two qubits, we show that the equality between entanglement of formation and assistance holds if and only if the state is a rank 2 bipartite state that can be expressed as the marginal of a pure 3-qubit state in the W class.

Quantum 2, 81 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-08-13-81

]]>We provide a fine-grained definition for monogamous measure of entanglement that does not invoke any particular monogamy relation. Our definition is given in terms an equality, as oppose to inequality, that we call the "disentangling condition". We relate our definition to the more traditional one, by showing that it generates standard monogamy relations. We then show that all quantum Markov states satisfy the disentangling condition for any entanglement monotone. In addition, we demonstrate that entanglement monotones that are given in terms of a convex roof extension are monogamous if they are monogamous on pure states, and show that for any quantum state that satisfies the disentangling condition, its entanglement of formation equals the entanglement of assistance. We characterize all bipartite mixed states with this property, and use it to show that the G-concurrence is monogamous. In the case of two qubits, we show that the equality between entanglement of formation and assistance holds if and only if the state is a rank 2 bipartite state that can be expressed as the marginal of a pure 3-qubit state in the W class.

]]>Quantum simulators, machines that can replicate the dynamics of quantum systems, are being built as useful devices and are seen as a stepping stone to universal quantum computers. A key difference between the two is that computers have the ability to perform the logic gates that make up algorithms. We propose a method for learning how to construct these gates efficiently by using the simulator to perform optimal control on itself. This bypasses two major problems of purely classical approaches to the control problem: the need to have an accurate model of the system, and a classical computer more powerful than the quantum one to carry out the required simulations. Strong evidence that the scheme scales polynomially in the number of qubits, for systems of up to 9 qubits with Ising interactions, is presented from numerical simulations carried out in different topologies. This suggests that this in situ approach is a practical way of upgrading quantum simulators to computers.

Quantum 2, 80 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-08-08-80

]]>Quantum simulators, machines that can replicate the dynamics of quantum systems, are being built as useful devices and are seen as a stepping stone to universal quantum computers. A key difference between the two is that computers have the ability to perform the logic gates that make up algorithms. We propose a method for learning how to construct these gates efficiently by using the simulator to perform optimal control on itself. This bypasses two major problems of purely classical approaches to the control problem: the need to have an accurate model of the system, and a classical computer more powerful than the quantum one to carry out the required simulations. Strong evidence that the scheme scales polynomially in the number of qubits, for systems of up to 9 qubits with Ising interactions, is presented from numerical simulations carried out in different topologies. This suggests that this in situ approach is a practical way of upgrading quantum simulators to computers.

]]>Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) technology will be available in the near future. Quantum computers with 50-100 qubits may be able to perform tasks which surpass the capabilities of today's classical digital computers, but noise in quantum gates will limit the size of quantum circuits that can be executed reliably. NISQ devices will be useful tools for exploring many-body quantum physics, and may have other useful applications, but the 100-qubit quantum computer will not change the world right away - we should regard it as a significant step toward the more powerful quantum technologies of the future. Quantum technologists should continue to strive for more accurate quantum gates and, eventually, fully fault-tolerant quantum computing.

Quantum 2, 79 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-08-06-79

]]>Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) technology will be available in the near future. Quantum computers with 50-100 qubits may be able to perform tasks which surpass the capabilities of today's classical digital computers, but noise in quantum gates will limit the size of quantum circuits that can be executed reliably. NISQ devices will be useful tools for exploring many-body quantum physics, and may have other useful applications, but the 100-qubit quantum computer will not change the world right away - we should regard it as a significant step toward the more powerful quantum technologies of the future. Quantum technologists should continue to strive for more accurate quantum gates and, eventually, fully fault-tolerant quantum computing.

]]>Xanadu becomes the first quantum computing startup to support fair open-access publishing in quantum science by supporting Quantum with a small yearly donation that will contribute to cover the operating costs of the journal.

Xanadu is thereby joining IQOQI Vienna, CQT Singapore, and the Stanhill Foundation, who are also helping to ensure that Quantum can keep offering an unconditional waiver of the standard 200€ article processing charge, to make publishing in Quantum affordable for everyone. We strongly believe that there should never be financial barriers to publishing great scientific results and would like to wholeheartedly thank Xanadu for their commitment!

Xanadu is a quantum technologies company powered by light. Xanadu designs and integrates quantum silicon photonic chips into existing hardware to create truly full-stack quantum computing.

]]>We give a quantum algorithm to exactly solve certain problems in combinatorial optimization, including weighted MAX-2-SAT as well as problems where the objective function is a weighted sum of products of Ising variables, all terms of the same degree $D$; this problem is called weighted MAX-E$D$-LIN2. We require that the optimal solution be unique for odd $D$ and doubly degenerate for even $D$; however, we expect that the algorithm still works without this condition and we show how to reduce to the case without this assumption at the cost of an additional overhead. While the time required is still exponential, the algorithm provably outperforms Grover's algorithm assuming a mild condition on the number of low energy states of the target Hamiltonian. The detailed analysis of the runtime dependence on a tradeoff between the number of such states and algorithm speed: fewer such states allows a greater speedup. This leads to a natural hybrid algorithm that finds either an exact or approximate solution.

Quantum 2, 78 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-07-26-78

]]>We give a quantum algorithm to exactly solve certain problems in combinatorial optimization, including weighted MAX-2-SAT as well as problems where the objective function is a weighted sum of products of Ising variables, all terms of the same degree $D$; this problem is called weighted MAX-E$D$-LIN2. We require that the optimal solution be unique for odd $D$ and doubly degenerate for even $D$; however, we expect that the algorithm still works without this condition and we show how to reduce to the case without this assumption at the cost of an additional overhead. While the time required is still exponential, the algorithm provably outperforms Grover's algorithm assuming a mild condition on the number of low energy states of the target Hamiltonian. The detailed analysis of the runtime dependence on a tradeoff between the number of such states and algorithm speed: fewer such states allows a greater speedup. This leads to a natural hybrid algorithm that finds either an exact or approximate solution.

]]>In this work, we present a reliable, efficient, and tight numerical method for calculating key rates for finite-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols. We illustrate our approach by finding higher key rates than those previously reported in the literature for several interesting scenarios (e.g., the Trojan-horse attack and the phase-coherent BB84 protocol). Our method will ultimately improve our ability to automate key rate calculations and, hence, to develop a user-friendly software package that could be used widely by QKD researchers.

Quantum 2, 77 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-07-26-77

]]>In this work, we present a reliable, efficient, and tight numerical method for calculating key rates for finite-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols. We illustrate our approach by finding higher key rates than those previously reported in the literature for several interesting scenarios (e.g., the Trojan-horse attack and the phase-coherent BB84 protocol). Our method will ultimately improve our ability to automate key rate calculations and, hence, to develop a user-friendly software package that could be used widely by QKD researchers.

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]]>Memory effects in open quantum dynamics are often incorporated in the equation of motion through a superoperator known as the memory kernel, which encodes how past states affect future dynamics. However, the usual prescription for determining the memory kernel requires information about the underlying system-environment dynamics. Here, by deriving the transfer tensor method from first principles, we show how a memory kernel master equation, for any quantum process, can be entirely expressed in terms of a family of completely positive dynamical maps. These can be reconstructed through quantum process tomography on the system alone, either experimentally or numerically, and the resulting equation of motion is equivalent to a generalised Nakajima-Zwanzig equation. For experimental settings, we give a full prescription for the reconstruction procedure, rendering the memory kernel operational. When simulation of an open system is the goal, we show how our procedure yields a considerable advantage for numerically calculating dynamics, even when the system is arbitrarily periodically (or transiently) driven or initially correlated with its environment. Namely, we show that the long time dynamics can be efficiently obtained from a set of reconstructed maps over a much shorter time.

Quantum 2, 76 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-07-11-76

]]>Memory effects in open quantum dynamics are often incorporated in the equation of motion through a superoperator known as the memory kernel, which encodes how past states affect future dynamics. However, the usual prescription for determining the memory kernel requires information about the underlying system-environment dynamics. Here, by deriving the transfer tensor method from first principles, we show how a memory kernel master equation, for any quantum process, can be entirely expressed in terms of a family of completely positive dynamical maps. These can be reconstructed through quantum process tomography on the system alone, either experimentally or numerically, and the resulting equation of motion is equivalent to a generalised Nakajima-Zwanzig equation. For experimental settings, we give a full prescription for the reconstruction procedure, rendering the memory kernel operational. When simulation of an open system is the goal, we show how our procedure yields a considerable advantage for numerically calculating dynamics, even when the system is arbitrarily periodically (or transiently) driven or initially correlated with its environment. Namely, we show that the long time dynamics can be efficiently obtained from a set of reconstructed maps over a much shorter time.

]]>Quantum information degrades over distance due to the unavoidable imperfections of the transmission channels, with loss as the leading factor. This simple fact hinders quantum communication, as it relies on propagating quantum systems. A solution to this issue is to introduce quantum repeaters at regular intervals along a lossy channel, to revive the quantum signal. In this work we study unitary one-way quantum repeaters, which do not need to perform measurements and do not require quantum memories, and are therefore considerably simpler than other schemes. We introduce and analyze two methods to construct Hamiltonians that generate a repeater interaction that can beat the fundamental repeaterless key rate bound even in the presence of an additional coupling loss, with signals that contain only a handful of photons. The natural evolution of this work will be to approximate a repeater interaction by combining simple optical elements.

Quantum 2, 75 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-07-05-75

]]>Quantum information degrades over distance due to the unavoidable imperfections of the transmission channels, with loss as the leading factor. This simple fact hinders quantum communication, as it relies on propagating quantum systems. A solution to this issue is to introduce quantum repeaters at regular intervals along a lossy channel, to revive the quantum signal. In this work we study unitary one-way quantum repeaters, which do not need to perform measurements and do not require quantum memories, and are therefore considerably simpler than other schemes. We introduce and analyze two methods to construct Hamiltonians that generate a repeater interaction that can beat the fundamental repeaterless key rate bound even in the presence of an additional coupling loss, with signals that contain only a handful of photons. The natural evolution of this work will be to approximate a repeater interaction by combining simple optical elements.

]]>We improve the number of T gates needed to perform an n-bit adder from $8n + O(1)$ to $4n + O(1)$. We do so via a "temporary logical-AND" construction which uses four T gates to store the logical-AND of two qubits into an ancilla and zero T gates to later erase the ancilla. This construction is equivalent to one by Jones, except that our framing makes it clear that the technique is far more widely applicable than previously realized. Temporary logical-ANDs can be applied to integer arithmetic, modular arithmetic, rotation synthesis, the quantum Fourier transform, Shor's algorithm, Grover oracles, and many other circuits. Because T gates dominate the cost of quantum computation based on the surface code, and temporary logical-ANDs are widely applicable, this represents a significant reduction in projected costs of quantum computation. In addition to our n-bit adder, we present an n-bit controlled adder circuit with T-count of $8n + O(1)$, a temporary adder that can be computed for the same cost as the normal adder but whose result can be kept until it is later uncomputed without using T gates, and discuss some other constructions whose T-count is improved by the temporary logical-AND.

Quantum 2, 74 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-06-18-74

]]>We improve the number of T gates needed to perform an n-bit adder from $8n + O(1)$ to $4n + O(1)$. We do so via a "temporary logical-AND" construction which uses four T gates to store the logical-AND of two qubits into an ancilla and zero T gates to later erase the ancilla. This construction is equivalent to one by Jones, except that our framing makes it clear that the technique is far more widely applicable than previously realized. Temporary logical-ANDs can be applied to integer arithmetic, modular arithmetic, rotation synthesis, the quantum Fourier transform, Shor's algorithm, Grover oracles, and many other circuits. Because T gates dominate the cost of quantum computation based on the surface code, and temporary logical-ANDs are widely applicable, this represents a significant reduction in projected costs of quantum computation. In addition to our n-bit adder, we present an n-bit controlled adder circuit with T-count of $8n + O(1)$, a temporary adder that can be computed for the same cost as the normal adder but whose result can be kept until it is later uncomputed without using T gates, and discuss some other constructions whose T-count is improved by the temporary logical-AND.

]]>We present a scheme for dissipatively generating maximal entanglement in a heralded manner. Our setup requires incoherent interactions with two thermal baths at different temperatures, but no source of work or control. A pair of $(d+1)$-dimensional quantum systems is first driven to an entangled steady state by the temperature gradient, and maximal entanglement in dimension $d$ can then be heralded via local filters. We discuss experimental prospects considering an implementation in superconducting systems.

Quantum 2, 73 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-06-13-73

]]>We present a scheme for dissipatively generating maximal entanglement in a heralded manner. Our setup requires incoherent interactions with two thermal baths at different temperatures, but no source of work or control. A pair of $(d+1)$-dimensional quantum systems is first driven to an entangled steady state by the temperature gradient, and maximal entanglement in dimension $d$ can then be heralded via local filters. We discuss experimental prospects considering an implementation in superconducting systems.

]]>The question of how large Bell inequality violations can be, for quantum distributions, has been the object of much work in the past several years. We say that a Bell inequality is normalized if its absolute value does not exceed 1 for any classical (i.e. local) distribution. Upper and (almost) tight lower bounds have been given for the quantum violation of these Bell inequalities in terms of number of outputs of the distribution, number of inputs, and the dimension of the shared quantum states. In this work, we revisit normalized Bell inequalities together with another family: inefficiency-resistant Bell inequalities. To be inefficiency-resistant, the Bell value must not exceed 1 for any local distribution, including those that can abort. This makes the Bell inequality resistant to the detection loophole, while a normalized Bell inequality is resistant to general local noise. Both these families of Bell inequalities are closely related to communication complexity lower bounds. We show how to derive large violations from any gap between classical and quantum communication complexity, provided the lower bound on classical communication is proven using these lower bound techniques. This leads to inefficiency-resistant violations that can be exponential in the size of the inputs. Finally, we study resistance to noise and inefficiency for these Bell inequalities.

Quantum 2, 72 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-06-07-72

]]>The question of how large Bell inequality violations can be, for quantum distributions, has been the object of much work in the past several years. We say that a Bell inequality is normalized if its absolute value does not exceed 1 for any classical (i.e. local) distribution. Upper and (almost) tight lower bounds have been given for the quantum violation of these Bell inequalities in terms of number of outputs of the distribution, number of inputs, and the dimension of the shared quantum states. In this work, we revisit normalized Bell inequalities together with another family: inefficiency-resistant Bell inequalities. To be inefficiency-resistant, the Bell value must not exceed 1 for any local distribution, including those that can abort. This makes the Bell inequality resistant to the detection loophole, while a normalized Bell inequality is resistant to general local noise. Both these families of Bell inequalities are closely related to communication complexity lower bounds. We show how to derive large violations from any gap between classical and quantum communication complexity, provided the lower bound on classical communication is proven using these lower bound techniques. This leads to inefficiency-resistant violations that can be exponential in the size of the inputs. Finally, we study resistance to noise and inefficiency for these Bell inequalities.

]]>We present several different codes and protocols to distill $T$, controlled-$S$, and Toffoli (or $CCZ$) gates. One construction is based on codes that generalize the triorthogonal codes, allowing any of these gates to be induced at the logical level by transversal $T$. We present a randomized construction of generalized triorthogonal codes obtaining an asymptotic distillation efficiency $\gamma\rightarrow 1$. We also present a Reed-Muller based construction of these codes which obtains a worse $\gamma$ but performs well at small sizes. Additionally, we present protocols based on checking the stabilizers of $CCZ$ magic states at the logical level by transversal gates applied to codes; these protocols generalize the protocols of . Several examples, including a Reed-Muller code for $T$-to-Toffoli distillation, punctured Reed-Muller codes for $T$-gate distillation, and some of the check based protocols, require a lower ratio of input gates to output gates than other known protocols at the given order of error correction for the given code size. In particular, we find a $512$ T-gate to $10$ Toffoli gate code with distance $8$ as well as triorthogonal codes with parameters $[[887,137,5]],[[912,112,6]],[[937,87,7]]$ with very low prefactors in front of the leading order error terms in those codes.

Quantum 2, 71 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-06-07-71

]]>We present several different codes and protocols to distill $T$, controlled-$S$, and Toffoli (or $CCZ$) gates. One construction is based on codes that generalize the triorthogonal codes, allowing any of these gates to be induced at the logical level by transversal $T$. We present a randomized construction of generalized triorthogonal codes obtaining an asymptotic distillation efficiency $\gamma\rightarrow 1$. We also present a Reed-Muller based construction of these codes which obtains a worse $\gamma$ but performs well at small sizes. Additionally, we present protocols based on checking the stabilizers of $CCZ$ magic states at the logical level by transversal gates applied to codes; these protocols generalize the protocols of . Several examples, including a Reed-Muller code for $T$-to-Toffoli distillation, punctured Reed-Muller codes for $T$-gate distillation, and some of the check based protocols, require a lower ratio of input gates to output gates than other known protocols at the given order of error correction for the given code size. In particular, we find a $512$ T-gate to $10$ Toffoli gate code with distance $8$ as well as triorthogonal codes with parameters $[[887,137,5]],[[912,112,6]],[[937,87,7]]$ with very low prefactors in front of the leading order error terms in those codes.

]]>We study theoretically the phonon-induced relaxation and decoherence of spin states of two electrons in a lateral double quantum dot in a SiGe/Si/SiGe heterostructure. We consider two types of singlet-triplet spin qubits and calculate their relaxation and decoherence times, in particular as a function of level hybridization, temperature, magnetic field, spin orbit interaction, and detuning between the quantum dots, using Bloch-Redfield theory. We show that the magnetic field gradient, which is usually applied to operate the spin qubit, may reduce the relaxation time by more than an order of magnitude. Using this insight, we identify an optimal regime where the magnetic field gradient does not affect the relaxation time significantly, and we propose regimes of longest decay times. We take into account the effects of one-phonon and two-phonon processes and suggest how our theory can be tested experimentally. The spin lifetimes we find here for Si-based quantum dots are significantly longer than the ones reported for their GaAs counterparts.

Quantum 2, 70 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-05-28-70

]]>We study theoretically the phonon-induced relaxation and decoherence of spin states of two electrons in a lateral double quantum dot in a SiGe/Si/SiGe heterostructure. We consider two types of singlet-triplet spin qubits and calculate their relaxation and decoherence times, in particular as a function of level hybridization, temperature, magnetic field, spin orbit interaction, and detuning between the quantum dots, using Bloch-Redfield theory. We show that the magnetic field gradient, which is usually applied to operate the spin qubit, may reduce the relaxation time by more than an order of magnitude. Using this insight, we identify an optimal regime where the magnetic field gradient does not affect the relaxation time significantly, and we propose regimes of longest decay times. We take into account the effects of one-phonon and two-phonon processes and suggest how our theory can be tested experimentally. The spin lifetimes we find here for Si-based quantum dots are significantly longer than the ones reported for their GaAs counterparts.

]]>We develop a new computational tool and framework for characterizing the scattering of photons by energy-nonconserving Hamiltonians into unidirectional (chiral) waveguides, for example, with coherent pulsed excitation. The temporal waveguide modes are a natural basis for characterizing scattering in quantum optics, and afford a powerful technique based on a coarse discretization of time. This overcomes limitations imposed by singularities in the waveguide-system coupling. Moreover, the integrated discretized equations can be faithfully converted to a continuous-time result by taking the appropriate limit. This approach provides a complete solution to the scattered photon field in the waveguide, and can also be used to track system-waveguide entanglement during evolution. We further develop a direct connection between quantum measurement theory and evolution of the scattered field, demonstrating the correspondence between quantum trajectories and the scattered photon state. Our method is most applicable when the number of photons scattered is known to be small, i.e. for a single-photon or photon-pair source. We illustrate two examples: analytical solutions for short laser pulses scattering off a two-level system and numerically exact solutions for short laser pulses scattering off a spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) or spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) source. Finally, we note that our technique can easily be extended to systems with multiple ground states and generalized scattering problems with both finite photon number input and coherent state drive, potentially enhancing the understanding of, e.g., light-matter entanglement and photon phase gates.

Quantum 2, 69 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-05-28-69

]]>We develop a new computational tool and framework for characterizing the scattering of photons by energy-nonconserving Hamiltonians into unidirectional (chiral) waveguides, for example, with coherent pulsed excitation. The temporal waveguide modes are a natural basis for characterizing scattering in quantum optics, and afford a powerful technique based on a coarse discretization of time. This overcomes limitations imposed by singularities in the waveguide-system coupling. Moreover, the integrated discretized equations can be faithfully converted to a continuous-time result by taking the appropriate limit. This approach provides a complete solution to the scattered photon field in the waveguide, and can also be used to track system-waveguide entanglement during evolution. We further develop a direct connection between quantum measurement theory and evolution of the scattered field, demonstrating the correspondence between quantum trajectories and the scattered photon state. Our method is most applicable when the number of photons scattered is known to be small, i.e. for a single-photon or photon-pair source. We illustrate two examples: analytical solutions for short laser pulses scattering off a two-level system and numerically exact solutions for short laser pulses scattering off a spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) or spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) source. Finally, we note that our technique can easily be extended to systems with multiple ground states and generalized scattering problems with both finite photon number input and coherent state drive, potentially enhancing the understanding of, e.g., light-matter entanglement and photon phase gates.

]]>Machine learning has the potential to become an important tool in quantum error correction as it allows the decoder to adapt to the error distribution of a quantum chip. An additional motivation for using neural networks is the fact that they can be evaluated by dedicated hardware which is very fast and consumes little power. Machine learning has been previously applied to decode the surface code. However, these approaches are not scalable as the training has to be redone for every system size which becomes increasingly difficult. In this work the existence of local decoders for higher dimensional codes leads us to use a low-depth convolutional neural network to locally assign a likelihood of error on each qubit. For noiseless syndrome measurements, numerical simulations show that the decoder has a threshold of around 7.1% when applied to the 4D toric code. When the syndrome measurements are noisy, the decoder performs better for larger code sizes when the error probability is low. We also give theoretical and numerical analysis to show how a convolutional neural network is different from the 1-nearest neighbor algorithm, which is a baseline machine learning method.

Quantum 2, 68 (2018). https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2018-05-24-68

]]>Machine learning has the potential to become an important tool in quantum error correction as it allows the decoder to adapt to the error distribution of a quantum chip. An additional motivation for using neural networks is the fact that they can be evaluated by dedicated hardware which is very fast and consumes little power. Machine learning has been previously applied to decode the surface code. However, these approaches are not scalable as the training has to be redone for every system size which becomes increasingly difficult. In this work the existence of local decoders for higher dimensional codes leads us to use a low-depth convolutional neural network to locally assign a likelihood of error on each qubit. For noiseless syndrome measurements, numerical simulations show that the decoder has a threshold of around 7.1% when applied to the 4D toric code. When the syndrome measurements are noisy, the decoder performs better for larger code sizes when the error probability is low. We also give theoretical and numerical analysis to show how a convolutional neural network is different from the 1-nearest neighbor algorithm, which is a baseline machine learning method.

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