The characterizing feature of a many-body localized phase is the existence of an extensive set of quasi-local conserved quantities with an exponentially localized support. This structure endows the system with the signature logarithmic in time entanglement growth between spatial partitions. This feature differentiates the phase from Anderson localization, in a non-interacting model. Experimentally measuring the entanglement between large partitions of an interacting many-body system requires highly non-local measurements which are currently beyond the reach of experimental technology. In this work we demonstrate that the defining structure of many-body localization can be detected by the dynamics of a simple quantity from quantum information known as the total correlations which is connected to the local entropies. Central to our finding is the necessity to propagate specific initial states, drawn from the Hamiltonian unbiased basis (HUB). The dynamics of the local entropies and total correlations requires only local measurements in space and therefore is potentially experimentally accessible in a range of platforms.

]]>The characterizing feature of a many-body localized phase is the existence of an extensive set of quasi-local conserved quantities with an exponentially localized support. This structure endows the system with the signature logarithmic in time entanglement growth between spatial partitions. This feature differentiates the phase from Anderson localization, in a non-interacting model. Experimentally measuring the entanglement between large partitions of an interacting many-body system requires highly non-local measurements which are currently beyond the reach of experimental technology. In this work we demonstrate that the defining structure of many-body localization can be detected by the dynamics of a simple quantity from quantum information known as the total correlations which is connected to the local entropies. Central to our finding is the necessity to propagate specific initial states, drawn from the Hamiltonian unbiased basis (HUB). The dynamics of the local entropies and total correlations requires only local measurements in space and therefore is potentially experimentally accessible in a range of platforms.

]]>Quantum coherence generated in a physical process can only be cast as a potentially useful resource if its effects can be detected at a later time. Recently, the notion of non-coherence-generating-and-detecting (NCGD) dynamics has been introduced and related to the classicality of the statistics associated with sequential measurements at different times. However, in order for a dynamics to be NCGD, its propagators need to satisfy a given set of conditions for $all$ triples of consecutive times. We reduce this to a finite set of $d(d-1)$ conditions, where $d$ is the dimension of the quantum system, provided that the generator is time-independent. Further conditions are derived for the more general time-dependent case. The application of this result to the case of a qubit dynamics allows us to elucidate which kind of noise gives rise to non-coherence-generation-and-detection.

]]>Quantum coherence generated in a physical process can only be cast as a potentially useful resource if its effects can be detected at a later time. Recently, the notion of non-coherence-generating-and-detecting (NCGD) dynamics has been introduced and related to the classicality of the statistics associated with sequential measurements at different times. However, in order for a dynamics to be NCGD, its propagators need to satisfy a given set of conditions for $all$ triples of consecutive times. We reduce this to a finite set of $d(d-1)$ conditions, where $d$ is the dimension of the quantum system, provided that the generator is time-independent. Further conditions are derived for the more general time-dependent case. The application of this result to the case of a qubit dynamics allows us to elucidate which kind of noise gives rise to non-coherence-generation-and-detection.

]]>Computing quantum state fidelity will be important to verify and characterize states prepared on a quantum computer. In this work, we propose novel lower and upper bounds for the fidelity $F(\rho,\sigma)$ based on the ``truncated fidelity'' $F(\rho_m, \sigma)$, which is evaluated for a state $\rho_m$ obtained by projecting $\rho$ onto its $m$-largest eigenvalues. Our bounds can be refined, i.e., they tighten monotonically with $m$. To compute our bounds, we introduce a hybrid quantum-classical algorithm, called Variational Quantum Fidelity Estimation, that involves three steps: (1) variationally diagonalize $\rho$, (2) compute matrix elements of $\sigma$ in the eigenbasis of $\rho$, and (3) combine these matrix elements to compute our bounds. Our algorithm is aimed at the case where $\sigma$ is arbitrary and $\rho$ is low rank, which we call low-rank fidelity estimation, and we prove that no classical algorithm can efficiently solve this problem under reasonable assumptions. Finally, we demonstrate that our bounds can detect quantum phase transitions and are often tighter than previously known computable bounds for realistic situations.

]]>Computing quantum state fidelity will be important to verify and characterize states prepared on a quantum computer. In this work, we propose novel lower and upper bounds for the fidelity $F(\rho,\sigma)$ based on the ``truncated fidelity'' $F(\rho_m, \sigma)$, which is evaluated for a state $\rho_m$ obtained by projecting $\rho$ onto its $m$-largest eigenvalues. Our bounds can be refined, i.e., they tighten monotonically with $m$. To compute our bounds, we introduce a hybrid quantum-classical algorithm, called Variational Quantum Fidelity Estimation, that involves three steps: (1) variationally diagonalize $\rho$, (2) compute matrix elements of $\sigma$ in the eigenbasis of $\rho$, and (3) combine these matrix elements to compute our bounds. Our algorithm is aimed at the case where $\sigma$ is arbitrary and $\rho$ is low rank, which we call low-rank fidelity estimation, and we prove that no classical algorithm can efficiently solve this problem under reasonable assumptions. Finally, we demonstrate that our bounds can detect quantum phase transitions and are often tighter than previously known computable bounds for realistic situations.

]]>For a native gate set which includes all single-qubit gates, we apply results from symplectic geometry to analyze the spaces of two-qubit programs accessible within a fixed number of gates. These techniques yield an explicit description of this subspace as a convex polytope, presented by a family of linear inequalities themselves accessible via a finite calculation. We completely describe this family of inequalities in a variety of familiar example cases, and as a consequence we highlight a certain member of the ``$\mathrm{XY}$--family'' for which this subspace is particularly large, i.e., for which many two-qubit programs admit expression as low-depth circuits.

]]>For a native gate set which includes all single-qubit gates, we apply results from symplectic geometry to analyze the spaces of two-qubit programs accessible within a fixed number of gates. These techniques yield an explicit description of this subspace as a convex polytope, presented by a family of linear inequalities themselves accessible via a finite calculation. We completely describe this family of inequalities in a variety of familiar example cases, and as a consequence we highlight a certain member of the ``$\mathrm{XY}$--family'' for which this subspace is particularly large, i.e., for which many two-qubit programs admit expression as low-depth circuits.

]]>A quantum state can be characterized from the violation of a Bell inequality. The well-known CHSH inequality for example can be used to quantify the fidelity (up to local isometries) of the measured state with respect to the singlet state. In this work, we look for the minimum CHSH violation leading to a non-trivial fidelity. In particular, we provide a new analytical approach to explore this problem in a device-independent framework, where the fidelity bound holds without assumption about the internal working of devices used in the CHSH test. We give an example which pushes the minimum CHSH threshold from $\approx2.0014$ to $\approx2.05,$ far from the local bound. This is in sharp contrast with the device-dependent (two-qubit) case, where entanglement is one-to-one related to a non-trivial singlet fidelity. We discuss this result in a broad context including device-dependent/independent state characterizations with various classical resources.

]]>A quantum state can be characterized from the violation of a Bell inequality. The well-known CHSH inequality for example can be used to quantify the fidelity (up to local isometries) of the measured state with respect to the singlet state. In this work, we look for the minimum CHSH violation leading to a non-trivial fidelity. In particular, we provide a new analytical approach to explore this problem in a device-independent framework, where the fidelity bound holds without assumption about the internal working of devices used in the CHSH test. We give an example which pushes the minimum CHSH threshold from $\approx2.0014$ to $\approx2.05,$ far from the local bound. This is in sharp contrast with the device-dependent (two-qubit) case, where entanglement is one-to-one related to a non-trivial singlet fidelity. We discuss this result in a broad context including device-dependent/independent state characterizations with various classical resources.

]]>Following the introduction of the task of $\textit{reference frame error}$ $\textit{correction}$ [1], we show how, by using reference frame alignment with clocks, one can add a continuous Abelian group of transversal logical gates to $any$ error-correcting code. With this we further explore a way of circumventing the no-go theorem of Eastin and Knill, which states that if local errors are correctable, the group of transversal gates must be of finite order. We are able to do this by introducing a small error on the decoding procedure that decreases with the dimension of the frames used. Furthermore, we show that there is a direct relationship between how small this error can be and how accurate quantum clocks can be: the more accurate the clock, the smaller the error; and the no-go theorem would be violated if time could be measured perfectly in quantum mechanics. The asymptotic scaling of the error is studied under a number of scenarios of reference frames and error models. The scheme is also extended to errors at unknown locations, and we show how to achieve this by simple majority voting related error correction schemes on the reference frames. In the Outlook, we discuss our results in relation to the AdS/CFT correspondence and the Page-Wooters mechanism.

]]>Following the introduction of the task of $\textit{reference frame error}$ $\textit{correction}$ [1], we show how, by using reference frame alignment with clocks, one can add a continuous Abelian group of transversal logical gates to $any$ error-correcting code. With this we further explore a way of circumventing the no-go theorem of Eastin and Knill, which states that if local errors are correctable, the group of transversal gates must be of finite order. We are able to do this by introducing a small error on the decoding procedure that decreases with the dimension of the frames used. Furthermore, we show that there is a direct relationship between how small this error can be and how accurate quantum clocks can be: the more accurate the clock, the smaller the error; and the no-go theorem would be violated if time could be measured perfectly in quantum mechanics. The asymptotic scaling of the error is studied under a number of scenarios of reference frames and error models. The scheme is also extended to errors at unknown locations, and we show how to achieve this by simple majority voting related error correction schemes on the reference frames. In the Outlook, we discuss our results in relation to the AdS/CFT correspondence and the Page-Wooters mechanism.

]]>Resource theory is a general, model-independent approach aiming to understand the qualitative notion of resource quantitatively. In a given resource theory, free operations are physical processes that do not create the resource and are considered zero-cost. This brings the following natural question: For a given free operation, what is its ability to preserve a resource? We axiomatically formulate this ability as the $\textit{resource preservability}$, which is constructed as a channel resource theory induced by a state resource theory. We provide two general classes of resource preservability monotones: One is based on state resource monotones, and another is based on channel distance measures. Specifically, the latter gives the robustness monotone, which has been recently found to have an operational interpretation. As examples, we show that athermality preservability of a Gibbs-preserving channel can be related to the smallest bath size needed to thermalize all its outputs, and it also bounds the capacity of a classical communication scenario under certain thermodynamic constraints. We further apply our theory to the study of entanglement preserving local thermalization (EPLT) and provide a new family of EPLT which admits arbitrarily small nonzero entanglement preservability and free entanglement preservation at the same time. Our results give the first systematic and general formulation of the resource preservation character of free operations.

]]>Resource theory is a general, model-independent approach aiming to understand the qualitative notion of resource quantitatively. In a given resource theory, free operations are physical processes that do not create the resource and are considered zero-cost. This brings the following natural question: For a given free operation, what is its ability to preserve a resource? We axiomatically formulate this ability as the $\textit{resource preservability}$, which is constructed as a channel resource theory induced by a state resource theory. We provide two general classes of resource preservability monotones: One is based on state resource monotones, and another is based on channel distance measures. Specifically, the latter gives the robustness monotone, which has been recently found to have an operational interpretation. As examples, we show that athermality preservability of a Gibbs-preserving channel can be related to the smallest bath size needed to thermalize all its outputs, and it also bounds the capacity of a classical communication scenario under certain thermodynamic constraints. We further apply our theory to the study of entanglement preserving local thermalization (EPLT) and provide a new family of EPLT which admits arbitrarily small nonzero entanglement preservability and free entanglement preservation at the same time. Our results give the first systematic and general formulation of the resource preservation character of free operations.

]]>Among certification techniques, those based on the violation of Bell inequalities are appealing because they do not require assumptions on the underlying Hilbert space dimension and on the accuracy of calibration methods. Such device-independent techniques have been proposed to certify the quality of entangled states, unitary operations, projective measurements following von Neumann's model and rank-one positive-operator-valued measures (POVM). Here, we show that they can be extended to the characterization of quantum instruments with post-measurement states that are not fully determined by the Kraus operators but also depend on input states. We provide concrete certification recipes that are robust to noise.

]]>Among certification techniques, those based on the violation of Bell inequalities are appealing because they do not require assumptions on the underlying Hilbert space dimension and on the accuracy of calibration methods. Such device-independent techniques have been proposed to certify the quality of entangled states, unitary operations, projective measurements following von Neumann's model and rank-one positive-operator-valued measures (POVM). Here, we show that they can be extended to the characterization of quantum instruments with post-measurement states that are not fully determined by the Kraus operators but also depend on input states. We provide concrete certification recipes that are robust to noise.

]]>Shortly before this tragic event, Peter and Vedran Dunjko submitted a perspective article to Quantum Views – a non-review of quantum machine learning. This article offers a last glimpse of his views on quantum machine learning and is a good starting point for those entering the field.

Today, the 17th of March, would be Peter’s birthday. To celebrate his life, we publish the non-review article and testimonials by friends and colleagues. If you knew Peter and would like to add a few words about him, your friendship or collaboration, or his work and legacy, email us and we will add it to this post.

It is difficult to assess how many lives Peter has positively impacted, especially those of colleagues and younger generations of scientists. Over all, I admired his ability to have a clear vision and his determination to make things happen. He was specially good at building bridges where other saw trenches. On a personal level, I will never forget the trust and support he gave me, in and beyond the work environment. I cannot remember a single interaction with him in which he did not transmit me a bit of his characteristic energy and optimism.

I will always have Peter as a role model, and as the scientist I want to become. We miss you, friend.

— Alex Pozas-Kerstjens

Peter was a post-doc in my group and we worked together on several papers. It was a fair deal: he learnt quantum physics from the group and the group learnt a lot of machine learning from him. During this time, I could of course appreciate all his scientific virtues and passion for research. With no doubts, he was a visionary who understood before many the relevance of establishing bridges between machine learning and quantum information. But beyond this, he was a very nice person, who went very well with all of us, and was always ready to share with everyone his views on science, politics, society and any topic of interest. He was sharp and funny. He left plenty of anecdotes that we will always remember with a smile.

— Antonio Acín

A field of science and technology, like every endeavor, is defined as much by its ideas as by its people. I’m proud that Peter is part of ours.

Peter and I met when he was putting together the first Creative Destruction Lab incubator. He had a clear openness and drive for quantum technology to become useful and accessible to more people. I felt that we were fellow travellers, discussing open source and community builting. This led to the first quantum open source workshop at FOSDEM as a collaboration between Unitary Fund and the Quantum Open Source Foundation that he co-founded.

We had so much more that we were planning to do together. His bright vision is missed but not lost. It lives in the many that he drew into the field through his work, support, and spirit.

— Will Zeng

Peter and I first met when I was a research scientist at D-Wave in 2016. I reconnected with Peter when I joined Vector Institute in Toronto and I was excited to hear he had recently joined University of Toronto as an Assistant Professor and as academic director of the quantum machine learning stream at the creative destruction lab. What always struck me most about Peter was his fearless enthusiasm for science, entrepreneurship, and technology. He was unstoppable and had a tremendously positive impact on so many of us. And he was only getting started. He was that unlikely mix of kindness, intelligence, humor, and boundless energy that I am sure we will all dearly miss.

— Juan Felipe Carrasquilla

Peter and I first connected in early 2014 via Martí Perarnau Llobet who was at ICFO and introduced Peter to me. Peter learned that Martí and I were using differential evolution for quantum metrology optimization and Peter became interested in whether artificial neural networks would outperform. From this introduction, Peter and I became collaborators, co-authors of joint papers and friends, bonding over both shared interests in quantum machine learning and a shared commitment to plant-based (vegan) diets.

When Peter joined the University of Toronto’s Creative Destruction Lab as Founding Academic Director of the Quantum Stream, he encouraged me to join as a Chief Scientist, which I happily did, and I joined Peter as a co-organizer of a 2020 quantum machine learning conference in Banff, where we will share memories of Peter and celebrate his life. I miss Peter’s boundless enthusiasm and creative energy, and I share a photograph of him, me and Nana Liu enjoying dinner, laughter and joy on the Bund in Shanghai.

— Barry Sanders

Peter and I joined the University of Toronto as assistant professors at the same time. I was very happy to find out that there would another junior quantum computing faculty member here, and when I met him in person I was even happier that, not only was Peter working in quantum computing, but he was a wonderful person. He is one of the few people I know who have this rare blend of kindness, humility, humour, but also ambition, vision, intellect, and endless energy. In just the couple of years that Peter has been here at the University of Toronto, he was making many exciting things happening in the quantum computing space, not just in terms of his research but more importantly he was building a vibrant community that fed off of his enthusiasm and optimism. I, and everyone else, was deeply inspired by his example.

On a more personal note, I am deeply saddened by the fact that we were supposed to continue a quantum machine learning project together after he came back from his trip. Although he isn’t around today, my collaborators and I are pushing the project forward; I hope that Peter would be proud of it.

— Henry Yuen

As much as one may try, it is challenging to write even coldest factual sentences about Peter, without having the text sound like a cliche-filled laudation.

Peter Wittek was a pioneer and visionary in the field of Quantum Machine Learning. Certainly one of the first classical machine learning experts to recognize the potential of the synergy between quantum computing and machine learning, he had a vision of bringing classical ML and quantum computing communities to jointly explore this domain. His vision was also his calling, dedicated to ensuring quantum machine learning grows, consolidates and becomes *actually realized*. He has spearheaded virtually every aspect of the domain: scientifically, from developing new quantum-enhanced algorithms, initiating research lines in machine-assisted discovery for quantum systems, by initiating extensive outreach activities, and by co-initiating the largest spin-off incubator program connecting the academia with industry and real world impact. It is not an exaggeration to say that most individuals active in QML, in any function, have had a benefit in interaction with Peter.

On a personal note, I have known Peter since 2015; he was a friend, straight shooter and direct, driven and focused yet open to differing points of view, and above all willing to help. He left us pursuing his passion for mountaineering, where he knew the goal is not in reaching the heights themselves, but in the thrill of the climb, the associated struggle and teamwork. This spirit of wanting to strive is also what our community will continue to do, building on many of his pioneering ideas.

— Vedran Dunjko

Peter and I met more than two years ago in sunny Benasque in 2017 and we have since, until his passing, worked and played closely together in 7 cities over 3 continents across multiple time zones. He was not only a great colleague, but also a very supportive and generous friend. He would always remind me a bit of Peter Pan, having that vitality of life and thirst for adventure, whether it’s creative exploration in research or spontaneously diving into chilly Lake Ontario, despite my persistent protests, to fetch a colony of bryozoa I found. Finally, I can imagine Peter smiling, on top of Everest, declaring that death itself would be another awfully big adventure.

His enthusiasm, playfulness and our endless arguing and laughing over the whiteboard would be greatly missed. We still have so many ideas together that we have not brought fully to light, but I’m grateful that our work combining security and quantum machine learning was completed before he left. Peter also often plays with new ideas on how to bring the community closer together and how to encourage the efforts of younger people. During my last visit to him in Canada, he told me of a wish for a scholarship scheme for students to conduct research in quantum machine learning. As far as I know this was no more than a casual thought at the time. Perhaps this is something we as a community can one day help bring to fruition.

— Nana Liu

]]>With his inquisitive mind Peter has helped shaped this field like few others. Of all people I know Peter deserves most to be called a true cosmopolitan. He saw opportunities to connect where others could only see the gaps – in science and private life. Through his kind character and energizing attitude he has positively influenced the trajectories of many, including mine. You will be dearly missed, as a visionary, as a colleague, as a friend.

— Christian Gogolin

$\psi$-epistemic interpretations of quantum theory maintain that quantum states only represent incomplete information about the physical states of the world. A major motivation for this view is the promise to provide a reasonable account of state update under measurement by asserting that it is simply a natural feature of updating incomplete statistical information. Here we demonstrate that all known $\psi$-epistemic ontological models of quantum theory in dimension $d\geq3$, including those designed to evade the conclusion of the PBR theorem, cannot represent state update correctly. Conversely, interpretations for which the wavefunction is real evade such restrictions despite remaining subject to long-standing criticism regarding physical discontinuity, indeterminism and the ambiguity of the Heisenberg cut. This revives the possibility of a no-go theorem with no additional assumptions, and demonstrates that what is usually thought of as a strength of epistemic interpretations may in fact be a weakness.

]]>$\psi$-epistemic interpretations of quantum theory maintain that quantum states only represent incomplete information about the physical states of the world. A major motivation for this view is the promise to provide a reasonable account of state update under measurement by asserting that it is simply a natural feature of updating incomplete statistical information. Here we demonstrate that all known $\psi$-epistemic ontological models of quantum theory in dimension $d\geq3$, including those designed to evade the conclusion of the PBR theorem, cannot represent state update correctly. Conversely, interpretations for which the wavefunction is real evade such restrictions despite remaining subject to long-standing criticism regarding physical discontinuity, indeterminism and the ambiguity of the Heisenberg cut. This revives the possibility of a no-go theorem with no additional assumptions, and demonstrates that what is usually thought of as a strength of epistemic interpretations may in fact be a weakness.

]]>Lin and Lin [16] have recently shown how starting with a classical query algorithm (decision tree) for a function, we may find upper bounds on its quantum query complexity. More precisely, they have shown that given a decision tree for a function $f:\{0,1\}^n\to[m]$ whose input can be accessed via queries to its bits, and a $\textit{guessing algorithm}$ that predicts answers to the queries, there is a quantum query algorithm for $f$ which makes at most $O(\sqrt{GT})$ quantum queries where $T$ is the depth of the decision tree and $G$ is the maximum number of mistakes of the guessing algorithm. In this paper we give a simple proof of and generalize this result for functions $f:[\ell]^n \to [m]$ with non-binary input as well as output alphabets. Our main tool for this generalization is non-binary span program which has recently been developed for non-binary functions, and the dual adversary bound. As applications of our main result we present several quantum query upper bounds, some of which are new. In particular, we show that topological sorting of vertices of a directed graph $\mathcal G$ can be done with $O(n^{3/2})$ quantum queries in the adjacency matrix model. Also, we show that the quantum query complexity of the maximum bipartite matching is upper bounded by $O(n^{3/4}\sqrt {m + n})$ in the adjacency list model.

]]>Lin and Lin [16] have recently shown how starting with a classical query algorithm (decision tree) for a function, we may find upper bounds on its quantum query complexity. More precisely, they have shown that given a decision tree for a function $f:\{0,1\}^n\to[m]$ whose input can be accessed via queries to its bits, and a $\textit{guessing algorithm}$ that predicts answers to the queries, there is a quantum query algorithm for $f$ which makes at most $O(\sqrt{GT})$ quantum queries where $T$ is the depth of the decision tree and $G$ is the maximum number of mistakes of the guessing algorithm. In this paper we give a simple proof of and generalize this result for functions $f:[\ell]^n \to [m]$ with non-binary input as well as output alphabets. Our main tool for this generalization is non-binary span program which has recently been developed for non-binary functions, and the dual adversary bound. As applications of our main result we present several quantum query upper bounds, some of which are new. In particular, we show that topological sorting of vertices of a directed graph $\mathcal G$ can be done with $O(n^{3/2})$ quantum queries in the adjacency matrix model. Also, we show that the quantum query complexity of the maximum bipartite matching is upper bounded by $O(n^{3/4}\sqrt {m + n})$ in the adjacency list model.

]]>Operational quantum stochastic thermodynamics is a recently proposed theory to study the thermodynamics of open systems based on the rigorous notion of a quantum stochastic process or quantum causal model. In there, a stochastic trajectory is defined solely in terms of experimentally accessible measurement results, which serve as the basis to define the corresponding thermodynamic quantities. In contrast to this observer-dependent point of view, a `black box', which evolves unitarily and can simulate a quantum causal model, is constructed here. The quantum thermodynamics of this big isolated system can then be studied using widely accepted arguments from statistical mechanics. It is shown that the resulting definitions of internal energy, heat, work, and entropy have a natural extension to the trajectory level. The canonical choice of them coincides with the proclaimed definitions of operational quantum stochastic thermodynamics, thereby providing strong support in favour of that novel framework. However, a few remaining ambiguities in the definition of stochastic work and heat are also discovered and in light of these findings some other proposals are reconsidered. Finally, it is demonstrated that the first and second law hold for an even wider range of scenarios than previously thought, covering a large class of quantum causal models based solely on a single assumption about the initial system-bath state.

]]>Operational quantum stochastic thermodynamics is a recently proposed theory to study the thermodynamics of open systems based on the rigorous notion of a quantum stochastic process or quantum causal model. In there, a stochastic trajectory is defined solely in terms of experimentally accessible measurement results, which serve as the basis to define the corresponding thermodynamic quantities. In contrast to this observer-dependent point of view, a `black box', which evolves unitarily and can simulate a quantum causal model, is constructed here. The quantum thermodynamics of this big isolated system can then be studied using widely accepted arguments from statistical mechanics. It is shown that the resulting definitions of internal energy, heat, work, and entropy have a natural extension to the trajectory level. The canonical choice of them coincides with the proclaimed definitions of operational quantum stochastic thermodynamics, thereby providing strong support in favour of that novel framework. However, a few remaining ambiguities in the definition of stochastic work and heat are also discovered and in light of these findings some other proposals are reconsidered. Finally, it is demonstrated that the first and second law hold for an even wider range of scenarios than previously thought, covering a large class of quantum causal models based solely on a single assumption about the initial system-bath state.

]]>When two equal photon-number states are combined on a balanced beam splitter, both output ports of the beam splitter contain only even numbers of photons. Consider the time-reversal of this interference phenomenon: the probability that a pair of photon-number-resolving detectors at the output ports of a beam splitter both detect the same number of photons depends on the overlap between the input state of the beam splitter and a state containing only even photon numbers. Here, we propose using this even-parity detection to engineer quantum states containing only even photon-number terms. As an example, we demonstrate the ability to prepare superpositions of two coherent states with opposite amplitudes, i.e. two-component Schrödinger cat states. Our scheme can prepare cat states of arbitrary size with nearly perfect fidelity. Moreover, we investigate engineering more complex even-parity states such as four-component cat states by iteratively applying our even-parity detector.

]]>When two equal photon-number states are combined on a balanced beam splitter, both output ports of the beam splitter contain only even numbers of photons. Consider the time-reversal of this interference phenomenon: the probability that a pair of photon-number-resolving detectors at the output ports of a beam splitter both detect the same number of photons depends on the overlap between the input state of the beam splitter and a state containing only even photon numbers. Here, we propose using this even-parity detection to engineer quantum states containing only even photon-number terms. As an example, we demonstrate the ability to prepare superpositions of two coherent states with opposite amplitudes, i.e. two-component Schrödinger cat states. Our scheme can prepare cat states of arbitrary size with nearly perfect fidelity. Moreover, we investigate engineering more complex even-parity states such as four-component cat states by iteratively applying our even-parity detector.

]]>Device-independent certifications employ Bell tests to guarantee the proper functioning of an apparatus from the sole knowledge of observed measurement statistics, i.e. without assumptions on the internal functioning of the devices. When these Bell tests are implemented with devices having too low efficiency, one has to post-select the events that lead to successful detections and thus rely on a fair sampling assumption. The question that we address in this paper is what remains of a device-independent certification under fair sampling. We provide an intuitive description of post-selections in terms of $filters$ and define the fair sampling assumption as a property of these filters, equivalent to the definition introduced in Ref. [1]. When this assumption is fulfilled, the post-selected data is reproduced by an ideal experiment where lossless devices measure a $filtered$ state which can be obtained from the $actual$ state via local probabilistic maps. Trusted conclusions can thus be obtained on the quantum properties of this filtered state and the corresponding measurement statistics can reliably be used, e.g., for randomness generation or quantum key distribution. We also explore a stronger notion of fair sampling leading to the conclusion that the post-selected data is a fair representation of the data that would be obtained with lossless detections. Furthermore, we show that our conclusions hold in cases of small deviations from exact fair sampling. Finally, we describe setups previously or potentially used in Bell-type experiments under fair sampling and identify the underlying device-specific assumptions.

]]>Device-independent certifications employ Bell tests to guarantee the proper functioning of an apparatus from the sole knowledge of observed measurement statistics, i.e. without assumptions on the internal functioning of the devices. When these Bell tests are implemented with devices having too low efficiency, one has to post-select the events that lead to successful detections and thus rely on a fair sampling assumption. The question that we address in this paper is what remains of a device-independent certification under fair sampling. We provide an intuitive description of post-selections in terms of $filters$ and define the fair sampling assumption as a property of these filters, equivalent to the definition introduced in Ref. [1]. When this assumption is fulfilled, the post-selected data is reproduced by an ideal experiment where lossless devices measure a $filtered$ state which can be obtained from the $actual$ state via local probabilistic maps. Trusted conclusions can thus be obtained on the quantum properties of this filtered state and the corresponding measurement statistics can reliably be used, e.g., for randomness generation or quantum key distribution. We also explore a stronger notion of fair sampling leading to the conclusion that the post-selected data is a fair representation of the data that would be obtained with lossless detections. Furthermore, we show that our conclusions hold in cases of small deviations from exact fair sampling. Finally, we describe setups previously or potentially used in Bell-type experiments under fair sampling and identify the underlying device-specific assumptions.

]]>We present classical and quantum algorithms based on spectral methods for a problem in tensor principal component analysis. The quantum algorithm achieves a $quartic$ speedup while using exponentially smaller space than the fastest classical spectral algorithm, and a super-polynomial speedup over classical algorithms that use only polynomial space. The classical algorithms that we present are related to, but slightly different from those presented recently in Ref. [1]. In particular, we have an improved threshold for recovery and the algorithms we present work for both even and odd order tensors. These results suggest that large-scale inference problems are a promising future application for quantum computers.

]]>We present classical and quantum algorithms based on spectral methods for a problem in tensor principal component analysis. The quantum algorithm achieves a $quartic$ speedup while using exponentially smaller space than the fastest classical spectral algorithm, and a super-polynomial speedup over classical algorithms that use only polynomial space. The classical algorithms that we present are related to, but slightly different from those presented recently in Ref. [1]. In particular, we have an improved threshold for recovery and the algorithms we present work for both even and odd order tensors. These results suggest that large-scale inference problems are a promising future application for quantum computers.

]]>Causal structures give us a way to understand the origin of observed correlations. These were developed for classical scenarios, but quantum mechanical experiments necessitate their generalisation. Here we study causal structures in a broad range of theories, which include both quantum and classical theory as special cases. We propose a method for analysing differences between such theories based on the so-called measurement entropy. We apply this method to several causal structures, deriving new relations that separate classical, quantum and more general theories within these causal structures. The constraints we derive for the most general theories are in a sense minimal requirements of any causal explanation in these scenarios. In addition, we make several technical contributions that give insight for the entropic analysis of quantum causal structures. In particular, we prove that for any causal structure and for any generalised probabilistic theory, the set of achievable entropy vectors form a convex cone.

]]>Causal structures give us a way to understand the origin of observed correlations. These were developed for classical scenarios, but quantum mechanical experiments necessitate their generalisation. Here we study causal structures in a broad range of theories, which include both quantum and classical theory as special cases. We propose a method for analysing differences between such theories based on the so-called measurement entropy. We apply this method to several causal structures, deriving new relations that separate classical, quantum and more general theories within these causal structures. The constraints we derive for the most general theories are in a sense minimal requirements of any causal explanation in these scenarios. In addition, we make several technical contributions that give insight for the entropic analysis of quantum causal structures. In particular, we prove that for any causal structure and for any generalised probabilistic theory, the set of achievable entropy vectors form a convex cone.

]]>Simulation of quantum chemistry is expected to be a principal application of quantum computing. In quantum simulation, a complicated Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a quantum system is decomposed into its constituent terms, where the effect of each term during time-evolution is individually computed. For many physical systems, the Hamiltonian has a large number of terms, constraining the scalability of established simulation methods. To address this limitation we introduce a new scheme that approximates the actual Hamiltonian with a sparser Hamiltonian containing fewer terms. By stochastically sparsifying weaker Hamiltonian terms, we benefit from a quadratic suppression of errors relative to deterministic approaches. Relying on optimality conditions from convex optimisation theory, we derive an appropriate probability distribution for the weaker Hamiltonian terms, and compare its error bounds with other probability ansatzes for some electronic structure Hamiltonians. Tuning the sparsity of our approximate Hamiltonians allows our scheme to interpolate between two recent random compilers: qDRIFT and randomized first order Trotter. Our scheme is thus an algorithm that combines the strengths of randomised Trotterisation with the efficiency of qDRIFT, and for intermediate gate budgets, outperforms both of these prior methods.

]]>Simulation of quantum chemistry is expected to be a principal application of quantum computing. In quantum simulation, a complicated Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a quantum system is decomposed into its constituent terms, where the effect of each term during time-evolution is individually computed. For many physical systems, the Hamiltonian has a large number of terms, constraining the scalability of established simulation methods. To address this limitation we introduce a new scheme that approximates the actual Hamiltonian with a sparser Hamiltonian containing fewer terms. By stochastically sparsifying weaker Hamiltonian terms, we benefit from a quadratic suppression of errors relative to deterministic approaches. Relying on optimality conditions from convex optimisation theory, we derive an appropriate probability distribution for the weaker Hamiltonian terms, and compare its error bounds with other probability ansatzes for some electronic structure Hamiltonians. Tuning the sparsity of our approximate Hamiltonians allows our scheme to interpolate between two recent random compilers: qDRIFT and randomized first order Trotter. Our scheme is thus an algorithm that combines the strengths of randomised Trotterisation with the efficiency of qDRIFT, and for intermediate gate budgets, outperforms both of these prior methods.

]]>Simulating the time-evolution of quantum mechanical systems is BQP-hard and expected to be one of the foremost applications of quantum computers. We consider classical algorithms for the approximation of Hamiltonian dynamics using subsampling methods from randomized numerical linear algebra. We derive a simulation technique whose runtime scales polynomially in the number of qubits and the Frobenius norm of the Hamiltonian. As an immediate application, we show that sample based quantum simulation, a type of evolution where the Hamiltonian is a density matrix, can be efficiently classically simulated under specific structural conditions. Our main technical contribution is a randomized algorithm for approximating Hermitian matrix exponentials. The proof leverages a low-rank, symmetric approximation via the Nyström method. Our results suggest that under strong sampling assumptions there exist classical poly-logarithmic time simulations of quantum computations.

]]>Simulating the time-evolution of quantum mechanical systems is BQP-hard and expected to be one of the foremost applications of quantum computers. We consider classical algorithms for the approximation of Hamiltonian dynamics using subsampling methods from randomized numerical linear algebra. We derive a simulation technique whose runtime scales polynomially in the number of qubits and the Frobenius norm of the Hamiltonian. As an immediate application, we show that sample based quantum simulation, a type of evolution where the Hamiltonian is a density matrix, can be efficiently classically simulated under specific structural conditions. Our main technical contribution is a randomized algorithm for approximating Hermitian matrix exponentials. The proof leverages a low-rank, symmetric approximation via the Nyström method. Our results suggest that under strong sampling assumptions there exist classical poly-logarithmic time simulations of quantum computations.

]]>The Alberti-Ulhmann criterion states that any given qubit dichotomy can be transformed into any other given qubit dichotomy by a quantum channel if and only if the testing region of the former dichotomy includes the testing region of the latter dichotomy. Here, we generalize the Alberti-Ulhmann criterion to the case of arbitrary number of qubit or qutrit states. We also derive an analogous result for the case of qubit or qutrit measurements with arbitrary number of elements. We demonstrate the possibility of applying our criterion in a semi-device independent way.

]]>The Alberti-Ulhmann criterion states that any given qubit dichotomy can be transformed into any other given qubit dichotomy by a quantum channel if and only if the testing region of the former dichotomy includes the testing region of the latter dichotomy. Here, we generalize the Alberti-Ulhmann criterion to the case of arbitrary number of qubit or qutrit states. We also derive an analogous result for the case of qubit or qutrit measurements with arbitrary number of elements. We demonstrate the possibility of applying our criterion in a semi-device independent way.

]]>We study the diffusive behavior of a Bose polaron immersed in a coherently coupled two-component Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). We assume a uniform, one-dimensional BEC. Polaron superdiffuses if it couples in the same manner to both components, i.e. either attractively or repulsively to both of them. This is the same behavior as that of an impurity immersed in a single BEC. Conversely, the polaron exhibits a transient nontrivial subdiffusive behavior if it couples attractively to one of the components and repulsively to the other. The anomalous diffusion exponent and the duration of the subdiffusive interval can be controlled with the Rabi frequency of the coherent coupling between the two components, and with the coupling strength of the impurity to the BEC.

]]>We study the diffusive behavior of a Bose polaron immersed in a coherently coupled two-component Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). We assume a uniform, one-dimensional BEC. Polaron superdiffuses if it couples in the same manner to both components, i.e. either attractively or repulsively to both of them. This is the same behavior as that of an impurity immersed in a single BEC. Conversely, the polaron exhibits a transient nontrivial subdiffusive behavior if it couples attractively to one of the components and repulsively to the other. The anomalous diffusion exponent and the duration of the subdiffusive interval can be controlled with the Rabi frequency of the coherent coupling between the two components, and with the coupling strength of the impurity to the BEC.

]]>Fluctuation theorems impose constraints on possible work extraction probabilities in thermodynamical processes. These constraints are stronger than the usual second law, which is concerned only with average values. Here, we show that such constraints, expressed in the form of the Jarzysnki equality, can be by-passed if one allows for the use of catalysts---additional degrees of freedom that may become correlated with the system from which work is extracted, but whose reduced state remains unchanged so that they can be re-used. This violation can be achieved both for small systems but also for macroscopic many-body systems, and leads to positive work extraction per particle with finite probability from macroscopic states in equilibrium. In addition to studying such violations for a single system, we also discuss the scenario in which many parties use the same catalyst to induce local transitions. We show that there exist catalytic processes that lead to highly correlated work distributions, expected to have implications for stochastic and quantum thermodynamics.

]]>Fluctuation theorems impose constraints on possible work extraction probabilities in thermodynamical processes. These constraints are stronger than the usual second law, which is concerned only with average values. Here, we show that such constraints, expressed in the form of the Jarzysnki equality, can be by-passed if one allows for the use of catalysts---additional degrees of freedom that may become correlated with the system from which work is extracted, but whose reduced state remains unchanged so that they can be re-used. This violation can be achieved both for small systems but also for macroscopic many-body systems, and leads to positive work extraction per particle with finite probability from macroscopic states in equilibrium. In addition to studying such violations for a single system, we also discuss the scenario in which many parties use the same catalyst to induce local transitions. We show that there exist catalytic processes that lead to highly correlated work distributions, expected to have implications for stochastic and quantum thermodynamics.

]]>Brandão and Svore [14] recently gave quantum algorithms for approximately solving semidefinite programs, which in some regimes are faster than the best-possible classical algorithms in terms of the dimension $n$ of the problem and the number $m$ of constraints, but worse in terms of various other parameters. In this paper we improve their algorithms in several ways, getting better dependence on those other parameters. To this end we develop new techniques for quantum algorithms, for instance a general way to efficiently implement smooth functions of sparse Hamiltonians, and a generalized minimum-finding procedure. We also show limits on this approach to quantum SDP-solvers, for instance for combinatorial optimization problems that have a lot of symmetry. Finally, we prove some general lower bounds showing that in the worst case, the complexity of every quantum LP-solver (and hence also SDP-solver) has to scale linearly with $mn$ when $m\approx n$, which is the same as classical.

]]>Brandão and Svore [14] recently gave quantum algorithms for approximately solving semidefinite programs, which in some regimes are faster than the best-possible classical algorithms in terms of the dimension $n$ of the problem and the number $m$ of constraints, but worse in terms of various other parameters. In this paper we improve their algorithms in several ways, getting better dependence on those other parameters. To this end we develop new techniques for quantum algorithms, for instance a general way to efficiently implement smooth functions of sparse Hamiltonians, and a generalized minimum-finding procedure. We also show limits on this approach to quantum SDP-solvers, for instance for combinatorial optimization problems that have a lot of symmetry. Finally, we prove some general lower bounds showing that in the worst case, the complexity of every quantum LP-solver (and hence also SDP-solver) has to scale linearly with $mn$ when $m\approx n$, which is the same as classical.

]]>The existence of correlations between the parts of a quantum system on the one hand, and entanglement between them on the other, are different properties. Yet, one intuitively would identify strong $N$-party correlations with $N$-party entanglement in an $N$-partite quantum state. If the local systems are qubits, this intuition is confirmed: The state with the strongest $N$-party correlations is the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, which does have genuine multipartite entanglement. However, for high-dimensional local systems the state with strongest $N$-party correlations may be a tensor product of Bell states, that is, partially separable. We show this by introducing several novel tools for handling the Bloch representation.

]]>The existence of correlations between the parts of a quantum system on the one hand, and entanglement between them on the other, are different properties. Yet, one intuitively would identify strong $N$-party correlations with $N$-party entanglement in an $N$-partite quantum state. If the local systems are qubits, this intuition is confirmed: The state with the strongest $N$-party correlations is the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, which does have genuine multipartite entanglement. However, for high-dimensional local systems the state with strongest $N$-party correlations may be a tensor product of Bell states, that is, partially separable. We show this by introducing several novel tools for handling the Bloch representation.

]]>What kinds of symmetry-protected topologically ordered (SPTO) ground states can be used for universal measurement-based quantum computation in a similar fashion to the 2D cluster state? 2D SPTO states are classified not only by global on-site symmetries but also by subsystem symmetries, which are fine-grained symmetries dependent on the lattice geometry. Recently, all states within so-called SPTO cluster phases on the square and hexagonal lattices have been shown to be universal, based on the presence of subsystem symmetries and associated structures of quantum cellular automata. Motivated by this observation, we analyze the computational capability of SPTO cluster phases on all vertex-translative 2D Archimedean lattices. There are four subsystem symmetries here called ribbon, cone, fractal, and 1-form symmetries, and the former three are fundamentally in one-to-one correspondence with three classes of Clifford quantum cellular automata. We conclude that nine out of the eleven Archimedean lattices support universal cluster phases protected by one of the former three symmetries, while the remaining lattices possess 1-form symmetries and have a different capability related to error correction.

]]>What kinds of symmetry-protected topologically ordered (SPTO) ground states can be used for universal measurement-based quantum computation in a similar fashion to the 2D cluster state? 2D SPTO states are classified not only by global on-site symmetries but also by subsystem symmetries, which are fine-grained symmetries dependent on the lattice geometry. Recently, all states within so-called SPTO cluster phases on the square and hexagonal lattices have been shown to be universal, based on the presence of subsystem symmetries and associated structures of quantum cellular automata. Motivated by this observation, we analyze the computational capability of SPTO cluster phases on all vertex-translative 2D Archimedean lattices. There are four subsystem symmetries here called ribbon, cone, fractal, and 1-form symmetries, and the former three are fundamentally in one-to-one correspondence with three classes of Clifford quantum cellular automata. We conclude that nine out of the eleven Archimedean lattices support universal cluster phases protected by one of the former three symmetries, while the remaining lattices possess 1-form symmetries and have a different capability related to error correction.

]]>Markovian master equations are a ubiquitous tool in the study of open quantum systems, but deriving them from first principles involves a series of compromises. On the one hand, the Redfield equation is valid for fast environments (whose correlation function decays much faster than the system relaxation time) regardless of the relative strength of the coupling to the system Hamiltonian, but is notoriously non-completely-positive. On the other hand, the Davies equation preserves complete positivity but is valid only in the ultra-weak coupling limit and for systems with a finite level spacing, which makes it incompatible with arbitrarily fast time-dependent driving. Here we show that a recently derived Markovian coarse-grained master equation (CGME), already known to be completely positive, has a much expanded range of applicability compared to the Davies equation, and moreover, is locally generated and can be generalized to accommodate arbitrarily fast driving. This generalization, which we refer to as the time-dependent CGME, is thus suitable for the analysis of fast operations in gate-model quantum computing, such as quantum error correction and dynamical decoupling. Our derivation proceeds directly from the Redfield equation and allows us to place rigorous error bounds on all three equations: Redfield, Davies, and coarse-grained. Our main result is thus a completely positive Markovian master equation that is a controlled approximation to the true evolution for any time-dependence of the system Hamiltonian, and works for systems with arbitrarily small level spacing. We illustrate this with an analysis showing that dynamical decoupling can extend coherence times even in a strictly Markovian setting.

]]>Markovian master equations are a ubiquitous tool in the study of open quantum systems, but deriving them from first principles involves a series of compromises. On the one hand, the Redfield equation is valid for fast environments (whose correlation function decays much faster than the system relaxation time) regardless of the relative strength of the coupling to the system Hamiltonian, but is notoriously non-completely-positive. On the other hand, the Davies equation preserves complete positivity but is valid only in the ultra-weak coupling limit and for systems with a finite level spacing, which makes it incompatible with arbitrarily fast time-dependent driving. Here we show that a recently derived Markovian coarse-grained master equation (CGME), already known to be completely positive, has a much expanded range of applicability compared to the Davies equation, and moreover, is locally generated and can be generalized to accommodate arbitrarily fast driving. This generalization, which we refer to as the time-dependent CGME, is thus suitable for the analysis of fast operations in gate-model quantum computing, such as quantum error correction and dynamical decoupling. Our derivation proceeds directly from the Redfield equation and allows us to place rigorous error bounds on all three equations: Redfield, Davies, and coarse-grained. Our main result is thus a completely positive Markovian master equation that is a controlled approximation to the true evolution for any time-dependence of the system Hamiltonian, and works for systems with arbitrarily small level spacing. We illustrate this with an analysis showing that dynamical decoupling can extend coherence times even in a strictly Markovian setting.

]]>A single qubit provides sufficient computational capabilities to construct a universal quantum classifier when assisted with a classical subroutine. This fact may be surprising since a single qubit only offers a simple superposition of two states and single-qubit gates only make a rotation in the Bloch sphere. The key ingredient to circumvent these limitations is to allow for multiple $\textit{data re-uploading}$. A quantum circuit can then be organized as a series of data re-uploading and single-qubit processing units. Furthermore, both data re-uploading and measurements can accommodate multiple dimensions in the input and several categories in the output, to conform to a universal quantum classifier. The extension of this idea to several qubits enhances the efficiency of the strategy as entanglement expands the superpositions carried along with the classification. Extensive benchmarking on different examples of the single- and multi-qubit quantum classifier validates its ability to describe and classify complex data.

]]>A single qubit provides sufficient computational capabilities to construct a universal quantum classifier when assisted with a classical subroutine. This fact may be surprising since a single qubit only offers a simple superposition of two states and single-qubit gates only make a rotation in the Bloch sphere. The key ingredient to circumvent these limitations is to allow for multiple $\textit{data re-uploading}$. A quantum circuit can then be organized as a series of data re-uploading and single-qubit processing units. Furthermore, both data re-uploading and measurements can accommodate multiple dimensions in the input and several categories in the output, to conform to a universal quantum classifier. The extension of this idea to several qubits enhances the efficiency of the strategy as entanglement expands the superpositions carried along with the classification. Extensive benchmarking on different examples of the single- and multi-qubit quantum classifier validates its ability to describe and classify complex data.

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]]>Treating reference frames fundamentally as quantum systems is inevitable in quantum gravity and also in quantum foundations once considering laboratories as physical systems. Both fields thereby face the question of how to describe physics relative to quantum reference systems and how the descriptions relative to different such choices are related. Here, we exploit a fruitful interplay of ideas from both fields to begin developing a unifying approach to transformations among quantum reference systems that ultimately aims at encompassing both quantum and gravitational physics. In particular, using a gravity inspired symmetry principle, which enforces physical observables to be relational and leads to an inherent redundancy in the description, we develop a perspective-neutral structure, which contains all frame perspectives at once and via which they are changed. We show that taking the perspective of a specific frame amounts to a fixing of the symmetry related redundancies in both the classical and quantum theory and that changing perspective corresponds to a symmetry transformation. We implement this using the language of constrained systems, which naturally encodes symmetries. Within a simple one-dimensional model, we recover some of the quantum frame transformations of [1], embedding them in a perspective-neutral framework. Using them, we illustrate how entanglement and classicality of an observed system depend on the quantum frame perspective. Our operational language also inspires a new interpretation of Dirac and reduced quantized theories within our model as perspective-neutral and perspectival quantum theories, respectively, and reveals the explicit link between them. In this light, we suggest a new take on the relation between a `quantum general covariance' and the diffeomorphism symmetry in quantum gravity.

]]>Treating reference frames fundamentally as quantum systems is inevitable in quantum gravity and also in quantum foundations once considering laboratories as physical systems. Both fields thereby face the question of how to describe physics relative to quantum reference systems and how the descriptions relative to different such choices are related. Here, we exploit a fruitful interplay of ideas from both fields to begin developing a unifying approach to transformations among quantum reference systems that ultimately aims at encompassing both quantum and gravitational physics. In particular, using a gravity inspired symmetry principle, which enforces physical observables to be relational and leads to an inherent redundancy in the description, we develop a perspective-neutral structure, which contains all frame perspectives at once and via which they are changed. We show that taking the perspective of a specific frame amounts to a fixing of the symmetry related redundancies in both the classical and quantum theory and that changing perspective corresponds to a symmetry transformation. We implement this using the language of constrained systems, which naturally encodes symmetries. Within a simple one-dimensional model, we recover some of the quantum frame transformations of [1], embedding them in a perspective-neutral framework. Using them, we illustrate how entanglement and classicality of an observed system depend on the quantum frame perspective. Our operational language also inspires a new interpretation of Dirac and reduced quantized theories within our model as perspective-neutral and perspectival quantum theories, respectively, and reveals the explicit link between them. In this light, we suggest a new take on the relation between a `quantum general covariance' and the diffeomorphism symmetry in quantum gravity.

]]>The Hodgkin-Huxley model describes the conduction of the nervous impulse through the axon, whose membrane's electric response can be described employing multiple connected electric circuits containing capacitors, voltage sources, and conductances. These conductances depend on previous depolarizing membrane voltages, which can be identified with a memory resistive element called memristor. Inspired by the recent quantization of the memristor, a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model including a single ion channel has been studied in the quantum regime. Here, we study the quantization of the complete Hodgkin-Huxley model, accounting for all three ion channels, and introduce a quantum source, together with an output waveguide as the connection to a subsequent neuron. Our system consists of two memristors and one resistor, describing potassium, sodium, and chloride ion channel conductances, respectively, and a capacitor to account for the axon's membrane capacitance. We study the behavior of both ion channel conductivities and the circuit voltage, and we compare the results with those of the single channel, for a given quantum state of the source. It is remarkable that, in opposition to the single-channel model, we are able to reproduce the voltage spike in an adiabatic regime. Arguing that the circuit voltage is a quantum variable, we find a purely quantum-mechanical contribution in the system voltage's second moment. This work represents a complete study of the Hodgkin-Huxley model in the quantum regime, establishing a recipe for constructing quantum neuron networks with quantum state inputs. This paves the way for advances in hardware-based neuromorphic quantum computing, as well as quantum machine learning, which might be more efficient resource-wise.

]]>The Hodgkin-Huxley model describes the conduction of the nervous impulse through the axon, whose membrane's electric response can be described employing multiple connected electric circuits containing capacitors, voltage sources, and conductances. These conductances depend on previous depolarizing membrane voltages, which can be identified with a memory resistive element called memristor. Inspired by the recent quantization of the memristor, a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model including a single ion channel has been studied in the quantum regime. Here, we study the quantization of the complete Hodgkin-Huxley model, accounting for all three ion channels, and introduce a quantum source, together with an output waveguide as the connection to a subsequent neuron. Our system consists of two memristors and one resistor, describing potassium, sodium, and chloride ion channel conductances, respectively, and a capacitor to account for the axon's membrane capacitance. We study the behavior of both ion channel conductivities and the circuit voltage, and we compare the results with those of the single channel, for a given quantum state of the source. It is remarkable that, in opposition to the single-channel model, we are able to reproduce the voltage spike in an adiabatic regime. Arguing that the circuit voltage is a quantum variable, we find a purely quantum-mechanical contribution in the system voltage's second moment. This work represents a complete study of the Hodgkin-Huxley model in the quantum regime, establishing a recipe for constructing quantum neuron networks with quantum state inputs. This paves the way for advances in hardware-based neuromorphic quantum computing, as well as quantum machine learning, which might be more efficient resource-wise.

]]>Investigating the classical simulability of quantum circuits provides a promising avenue towards understanding the computational power of quantum systems. Whether a class of quantum circuits can be efficiently simulated with a probabilistic classical computer, or is provably hard to simulate, depends quite critically on the precise notion of ``classical simulation'' and in particular on the required accuracy. We argue that a notion of classical simulation, which we call EPSILON-simulation (or $\epsilon$-simulation for short), captures the essence of possessing ``equivalent computational power'' as the quantum system it simulates: It is statistically impossible to distinguish an agent with access to an $\epsilon$-simulator from one possessing the simulated quantum system. We relate $\epsilon$-simulation to various alternative notions of simulation predominantly focusing on a simulator we call a $\textit{poly-box}$. A poly-box outputs $1/poly$ precision additive estimates of Born probabilities and marginals. This notion of simulation has gained prominence through a number of recent simulability results. Accepting some plausible computational theoretic assumptions, we show that $\epsilon$-simulation is strictly stronger than a poly-box by showing that IQP circuits and unconditioned magic-state injected Clifford circuits are both hard to $\epsilon$-simulate and yet admit a poly-box. In contrast, we also show that these two notions are equivalent under an additional assumption on the sparsity of the output distribution ($\textit{poly-sparsity}$).

]]>Investigating the classical simulability of quantum circuits provides a promising avenue towards understanding the computational power of quantum systems. Whether a class of quantum circuits can be efficiently simulated with a probabilistic classical computer, or is provably hard to simulate, depends quite critically on the precise notion of ``classical simulation'' and in particular on the required accuracy. We argue that a notion of classical simulation, which we call EPSILON-simulation (or $\epsilon$-simulation for short), captures the essence of possessing ``equivalent computational power'' as the quantum system it simulates: It is statistically impossible to distinguish an agent with access to an $\epsilon$-simulator from one possessing the simulated quantum system. We relate $\epsilon$-simulation to various alternative notions of simulation predominantly focusing on a simulator we call a $\textit{poly-box}$. A poly-box outputs $1/poly$ precision additive estimates of Born probabilities and marginals. This notion of simulation has gained prominence through a number of recent simulability results. Accepting some plausible computational theoretic assumptions, we show that $\epsilon$-simulation is strictly stronger than a poly-box by showing that IQP circuits and unconditioned magic-state injected Clifford circuits are both hard to $\epsilon$-simulate and yet admit a poly-box. In contrast, we also show that these two notions are equivalent under an additional assumption on the sparsity of the output distribution ($\textit{poly-sparsity}$).

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