Certifying long-range quantum correlations through routed Bell tests

Edwin Peter Lobo, Jef Pauwels, and Stefano Pironio

Laboratoire d'Information Quantique, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Belgium

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Losses in the transmission channel, which increase with distance, pose a major obstacle to photonics demonstrations of quantum nonlocality and its applications. Recently, Chaturvedi, Viola, and Pawlowski (CVP) [arXiv:2211.14231] introduced a variation of standard Bell experiments with the goal of extending the range over which quantum nonlocality can be demonstrated. These experiments, which we call `routed Bell experiments', involve two distant parties, Alice and Bob, and allow Bob to route his quantum particle along two possible paths and measure it at two distinct locations – one near and another far from the source. The premise is that a high-quality Bell violation in the short-path should constrain the possible strategies underlying the experiment, thereby weakening the conditions required to detect nonlocal correlations in the long-path. Building on this idea, CVP showed that there are certain quantum correlations in routed Bell experiments such that the outcomes of the remote measurement device cannot be classically predetermined, even when its detection efficiency is arbitrarily low. In this paper, we show that the correlations considered by CVP, though they cannot be classically predetermined, do not require the transmission of quantum systems to the remote measurement device. This leads us to define and formalize the concept of `short-range' and `long-range' quantum correlations in routed Bell experiments. We show that these correlations can be characterized through standard semidefinite-programming hierarchies for non-commutative polynomial optimization. We then explore the conditions under which short-range quantum correlations can be ruled out and long-range quantum nonlocality can be certified in routed Bell experiments. We point out that there exist fundamental lower-bounds on the critical detection efficiency of the distant measurement device, implying that routed Bell experiments cannot demonstrate long-range quantum nonlocality at arbitrarily large distances. However, we do find that routed Bell experiments allow for reducing the detection efficiency threshold necessary to certify long-range quantum correlations. The improvements, though, are significantly smaller than those suggested by CVP's analysis.

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Cited by

[1] Tristan Le Roy-Deloison, Edwin Peter Lobo, Jef Pauwels, and Stefano Pironio, "Device-independent quantum key distribution based on routed Bell tests", arXiv:2404.01202, (2024).

[2] Luis Villegas-Aguilar, Emanuele Polino, Farzad Ghafari, Marco Túlio Quintino, Kiarn T. Laverick, Ian R. Berkman, Sven Rogge, Lynden K. Shalm, Nora Tischler, Eric G. Cavalcanti, Sergei Slussarenko, and Geoff J. Pryde, "Nonlocality activation in a photonic quantum network", Nature Communications 15, 3112 (2024).

[3] Anubhav Chaturvedi, Giuseppe Viola, and Marcin Pawłowski, "Extending loophole-free nonlocal correlations to arbitrarily large distances", npj Quantum Information 10, 7 (2024).

[4] Michele Masini, Marie Ioannou, Nicolas Brunner, Stefano Pironio, and Pavel Sekatski, "Joint-measurability and quantum communication with untrusted devices", arXiv:2403.14785, (2024).

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