Experimental Communication Through Superposition of Quantum Channels

Arthur O. T. Pang1, Noah Lupu-Gladstein1, Hugo Ferretti1, Y. Batuhan Yilmaz1, Aharon Brodutch1,2, and Aephraim M. Steinberg1,3

1Department of Physics and Centre for Quantum Information Quantum Control University of Toronto, 60 St George St, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7, Canada
2IonQ Canada Inc. 2300 Yonge St, Toronto ON, M4P 1E4
3Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1M1, Canada

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Information capacity enhancement through the coherent control of channels has attracted much attention of late, with work exploring the effect of coherent control of channel causal orders, channel superpositions, and information encoding. Coherently controlling channels necessitates a non-trivial expansion of the channel description, which for superposing qubit channels, is equivalent to expanding the channel to act on qutrits. Here we explore the nature of this capacity enhancement for the superposition of channels by comparing the maximum coherent information through depolarizing qubit channels and relevant superposed and qutrit channels. We show that the expanded qutrit channel description in itself is sufficient to explain the capacity enhancement without any use of superposition.

Quantum control of communication channels can result in an unexpected increase in channel capacity. In this paper, we experimentally superpose two zero-capacity qubit channels, in which a qubit controls which channel the information is transmitted through. We show here that not transmitting information through a particular channel is also a degree of freedom that can transmit information. Superposing channels is one way to use this degree of freedom to transmit information. In this paper, we discuss the conditions where this extra degree of freedom can assist in the transmission of information and the nature of the channel resulting from the superposition.

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Cited by

[1] Michael Antesberger, Marco Túlio Quintino, Philip Walther, and Lee A. Rozema, "Higher-Order Process Matrix Tomography of a Passively-Stable Quantum Switch", PRX Quantum 5 1, 010325 (2024).

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