20-Mode Universal Quantum Photonic Processor

Caterina Taballione1, Malaquias Correa Anguita2, Michiel de Goede1, Pim Venderbosch1, Ben Kassenberg1, Henk Snijders1, Narasimhan Kannan1, Ward L. Vleeshouwers1,3, Devin Smith1, Jörn P. Epping1, Reinier van der Meer2, Pepijn W. H. Pinkse2, Hans van den Vlekkert1, and Jelmer J. Renema1,2

1QuiX Quantum B.V., 7521 AN Enschede, The Netherlands
2MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands
3QuSoft, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Abstract

Integrated photonics is an essential technology for optical quantum computing. Universal, phase-stable, reconfigurable multimode interferometers (quantum photonic processors) enable manipulation of photonic quantum states and are one of the main components of photonic quantum computers in various architectures. In this paper, we report the realization of the largest quantum photonic processor to date. The processor enables arbitrary unitary transformations on its 20 input modes with an amplitude fidelity of $F_{\text{Haar}} = 97.4\%$ and $F_{\text{Perm}} = 99.5\%$ for Haar-random and permutation matrices, respectively, an optical loss of 2.9 dB averaged over all modes, and high-visibility quantum interference with $V_{\text{HOM}}=98\%$. The processor is realized in $\mathrm{Si_3N_4}$ waveguides and is actively cooled by a Peltier element.

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Cited by

[1] Shuqing Lin, Yanfeng Zhang, Zhaoyang Wu, Shihao Zeng, Qing Gao, Jiaqi Li, Xiaoqun Yu, and Siyuan Yu, "Power-efficient programmable integrated multiport photonic interferometer in CMOS-compatible silicon nitride", Photonics Research 12 3, A11 (2024).

[2] Yang Yang, Robert J. Chapman, Ben Haylock, Francesco Lenzini, Yogesh N. Joglekar, Mirko Lobino, and Alberto Peruzzo, "Programmable high-dimensional Hamiltonian in a photonic waveguide array", Nature Communications 15 1, 50 (2024).

[3] Emma Lomonte, Maik Stappers, Linus Krämer, Wolfram H. P. Pernice, and Francesco Lenzini, "Scalable and efficient grating couplers on low-index photonic platforms enabled by cryogenic deep silicon etching", Scientific Reports 14 1, 4256 (2024).

[4] Suraj Goel, Saroch Leedumrongwatthanakun, Natalia Herrera Valencia, Will McCutcheon, Armin Tavakoli, Claudio Conti, Pepijn W. H. Pinkse, and Mehul Malik, "Inverse design of high-dimensional quantum optical circuits in a complex medium", Nature Physics 20 2, 232 (2024).

[5] Oskar van Deventer, Nicolas Spethmann, Marius Loeffler, Michele Amoretti, Rob van den Brink, Natalia Bruno, Paolo Comi, Noel Farrugia, Marco Gramegna, Andreas Jenet, Ben Kassenberg, Wojciech Kozlowski, Thomas Länger, Tobias Lindstrom, Vicente Martin, Niels Neumann, Homer Papadopoulos, Saverio Pascazio, Momtchil Peev, Richard Pitwon, M. Adriaan Rol, Paolo Traina, Pim Venderbosch, and Frank K. Wilhelm-Mauch, "Towards European standards for quantum technologies", EPJ Quantum Technology 9 1, 33 (2022).

[6] Ciro Pentangelo, Niki Di Giano, Simone Piacentini, Riccardo Arpe, Francesco Ceccarelli, Andrea Crespi, and Roberto Osellame, "High-fidelity and polarization-insensitive universal photonic processors fabricated by femtosecond laser writing", Nanophotonics (2024).

[7] Kamil Wereszczyński and Krzysztof Cyran, Holography - Recent Advances and Applications (2023) ISBN:978-1-80356-563-7.

[8] Yong Zheng, Haozong Zhong, Haisu Zhang, Lvbin Song, Jian Liu, Youting Liang, Zhaoxiang Liu, Jinming Chen, Junxia Zhou, Zhiwei Fang, Min Wang, Lin Li, Rongbo Wu, and Ya Cheng, "Electro-optically programmable photonic circuits enabled by wafer-scale integration on thin-film lithium niobite", Physical Review Research 5 3, 033206 (2023).

[9] Daniel Jost Brod, "Loops simplify a set-up to boost quantum computational advantage", Nature 606 7912, 31 (2022).

[10] Raghav G. Jha, Felix Ringer, George Siopsis, and Shane Thompson, "Continuous variable quantum computation of the $O(3)$ model in 1+1 dimensions", arXiv:2310.12512, (2023).

[11] Fulvio Flamini, Marius Krumm, Lukas J. Fiderer, Thomas Müller, and Hans J. Briegel, "Towards interpretable quantum machine learning via single-photon quantum walks", arXiv:2301.13669, (2023).

[12] Kazuma Yonezu, Yutaro Enomoto, Takato Yoshida, and Shuntaro Takeda, "Time-Domain Universal Linear-Optical Operations for Universal Quantum Information Processing", Physical Review Letters 131 4, 040601 (2023).

[13] Yuan Li, Lingxiao Wan, Hui Zhang, Huihui Zhu, Yuzhi Shi, Lip Ket Chin, Xiaoqi Zhou, Leong Chuan Kwek, and Ai Qun Liu, "Quantum Fredkin and Toffoli gates on a versatile programmable silicon photonic chip", npj Quantum Information 8, 112 (2022).

[14] Kirill A. Buzaverov, Aleksandr S. Baburin, Evgeny V. Sergeev, Sergey S. Avdeev, Evgeniy S. Lotkov, Mihail Andronik, Victoria E. Stukalova, Dmitry A. Baklykov, Ivan V. Dyakonov, Nikolay N. Skryabin, Mikhail Yu. Saygin, Sergey P. Kulik, Ilya A. Ryzhikov, and Ilya A. Rodionov, "Low-loss silicon nitride photonic ICs for near-infrared wavelength bandwidth", Optics Express 31 10, 16227 (2023).

[15] Taira Giordani, Francesco Hoch, Gonzalo Carvacho, Nicolò Spagnolo, and Fabio Sciarrino, "Integrated photonics in quantum technologies", Nuovo Cimento Rivista Serie 46 2, 71 (2023).

[16] A. Cavaillès, P. Boucher, L. Daudet, I. Carron, S. Gigan, and K. Müller, "A high-fidelity and large-scale reconfigurable photonic processor for NISQ applications", arXiv:2205.01704, (2022).

[17] Andreas Fyrillas, Olivier Faure, Nicolas Maring, Jean Senellart, and Nadia Belabas, "Scalable machine learning-assisted clear-box characterization for optimally controlled photonic circuits", arXiv:2310.15349, (2023).

[18] Taira Giordani, Valerio Mannucci, Nicolò Spagnolo, Marco Fumero, Arianna Rampini, Emanuele Rodolà, and Fabio Sciarrino, "Certification of Gaussian Boson Sampling via graphs feature vectors and kernels", Quantum Science and Technology 8 1, 015005 (2023).

[19] Emma Lomonte, Maik Stappers, Linus Krämer, Wolfram H. P. Pernice, and Francesco Lenzini, "Scalable and efficient grating couplers on low-index photonic platforms enabled by cryogenic deep silicon etching", arXiv:2305.00907, (2023).

[20] Francesco Hoch, Taira Giordani, Nicolò Spagnolo, Andrea Crespi, Roberto Osellame, and Fabio Sciarrino, "Characterization of multimode linear optical networks", Advanced Photonics Nexus 2, 016007 (2023).

[21] Kirill A. Buzaverov, Aleksandr S. Baburin, Evgeny V. Sergeev, Sergey S. Avdeev, Evgeniy S. Lotkov, Mihail Andronik, Victoria E. Stukalova, Dmitry A. Baklykov, Ivan V. Dyakonov, Nikolay N. Skryabin, Mikhail Yu. Saygin, Sergey P. Kulik, Ilya A. Ryzhikov, and Ilya A. Rodionov, "Low-loss silicon nitride photonic ICs for single-photon applications", arXiv:2210.15984, (2022).

[22] Zuhra Amiri and Janis Nötzel, "Comparing Latency and Power Consumption: Quantum vs. Classical Preprocessing", arXiv:2311.04053, (2023).

[23] Junyu Zhou, Yuhao Liu, Yunong Shi, Ali Javadi-Abhari, and Gushu Li, "Bosehedral: Compiler Optimization for Bosonic Quantum Computing", arXiv:2402.02279, (2024).

[24] Riccardo Albiero, Ciro Pentangelo, Marco Gardina, Simone Atzeni, Francesco Ceccarelli, and Roberto Osellame, "Toward Higher Integration Density in Femtosecond-Laser-Written Programmable Photonic Circuits", arXiv:2303.05150, (2023).

The above citations are from Crossref's cited-by service (last updated successfully 2024-03-02 17:59:22) and SAO/NASA ADS (last updated successfully 2024-03-02 17:59:23). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.