Entanglement entropy production in Quantum Neural Networks

Marco Ballarin1,2,3, Stefano Mangini1,4,5, Simone Montangero2,3,6, Chiara Macchiavello4,5,7, and Riccardo Mengoni8

1These authors contributed equally to this work
2Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia "G. Galilei", via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova, Italy
3INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova, Italy
4Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia, Italy
5INFN Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia, Italy
6Padua Quantum Technologies Research Center, Università degli Studi di Padova
7CNR-INO - Largo E. Fermi 6, I-50125, Firenze, Italy
8CINECA Quantum Computing Lab,Via Magnanelli, 6/3, 40033 Casalecchio di Reno, Bologna, Italy

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Abstract

Quantum Neural Networks (QNN) are considered a candidate for achieving quantum advantage in the Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum computer (NISQ) era. Several QNN architectures have been proposed and successfully tested on benchmark datasets for machine learning. However, quantitative studies of the QNN-generated entanglement have been investigated only for up to few qubits. Tensor network methods allow to emulate quantum circuits with a large number of qubits in a wide variety of scenarios. Here, we employ matrix product states to characterize recently studied QNN architectures with random parameters up to fifty qubits showing that their entanglement, measured in terms of entanglement entropy between qubits, tends to that of Haar distributed random states as the depth of the QNN is increased. We certify the randomness of the quantum states also by measuring the expressibility of the circuits, as well as using tools from random matrix theory. We show a universal behavior for the rate at which entanglement is created in any given QNN architecture, and consequently introduce a new measure to characterize the entanglement production in QNNs: the entangling speed. Our results characterise the entanglement properties of quantum neural networks, and provides new evidence of the rate at which these approximate random unitaries.

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