Robust quantum many-body scars in lattice gauge theories

Jad C. Halimeh1,2, Luca Barbiero3, Philipp Hauke4, Fabian Grusdt1,2, and Annabelle Bohrdt5,6

1Department of Physics and Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics (ASC), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, D-80333 München, Germany
2Munich Center for Quantum Science and Technology (MCQST), Schellingstraße 4, D-80799 München, Germany
3Institute for Condensed Matter Physics and Complex Systems, DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino, Italy
4INO-CNR BEC Center and Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento, Italy
5ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
6Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

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Quantum many-body scarring is a paradigm of weak ergodicity breaking arising due to the presence of special nonthermal many-body eigenstates that possess low entanglement entropy, are equally spaced in energy, and concentrate in certain parts of the Hilbert space. Though scars have been shown to be intimately connected to gauge theories, their stability in such experimentally relevant models is still an open question, and it is generally considered that they exist only under fine-tuned conditions. In this work, we show through Krylov-based time-evolution methods how quantum many-body scars can be made robust in the presence of experimental errors through utilizing terms linear in the gauge-symmetry generator or a simplified pseudogenerator in $\mathrm{U}(1)$ and $\mathbb{Z}_2$ lattice gauge theories. Our findings are explained by the concept of quantum Zeno dynamics. Our experimentally feasible methods can be readily implemented in existing large-scale ultracold-atom quantum simulators and setups of Rydberg atoms with optical tweezers.

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[14] Jad C. Halimeh and Philipp Hauke, "Stabilizing Gauge Theories in Quantum Simulators: A Brief Review", arXiv:2204.13709, (2022).

[15] Lorenzo Gotta, Leonardo Mazza, Pascal Simon, and Guillaume Roux, "Exact many-body scars based on pairs or multimers in a chain of spinless fermions", Physical Review B 106 23, 235147 (2022).

[16] Anthony N. Ciavarella, Stephan Caspar, Marc Illa, and Martin J. Savage, "State Preparation in the Heisenberg Model through Adiabatic Spiraling", Quantum 7, 970 (2023).

[17] Anthony N. Ciavarella, Stephan Caspar, Hersh Singh, and Martin J. Savage, "Preparation for quantum simulation of the (1 +1 ) -dimensional O(3) nonlinear σ model using cold atoms", Physical Review A 107 4, 042404 (2023).

[18] Marco Michel and Sebastian Zell, "The Timescales of Quantum Breaking", arXiv:2306.09410, (2023).

The above citations are from Crossref's cited-by service (last updated successfully 2023-12-07 08:17:37) and SAO/NASA ADS (last updated successfully 2023-12-07 08:17:38). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.