Gravitational time dilation as a resource in quantum sensing

Carlo Cepollaro1,2,3, Flaminia Giacomini4, and Matteo G.A. Paris5,6

1Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica Aldo Pontremoli, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano, Italy
2Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology (VCQ), Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
3Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
4Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5, Canada
5Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica Aldo Pontremoli, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano, Italy
6INFN, Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano, Italy

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Abstract

Atomic clock interferometers are a valuable tool to test the interface between quantum theory and gravity, in particular via the measurement of gravitational time dilation in the quantum regime. Here, we investigate whether gravitational time dilation may be also used as a resource in quantum information theory. In particular, we show that for a freely falling interferometer and for a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the gravitational time dilation may enhance the precision in estimating the gravitational acceleration for long interferometric times. To this aim, the interferometric measurements should be performed on both the path and the clock degrees of freedom.

Quantum mechanics and general relativity have revolutionized the way we understand the physical world, and have led to many technological advancements. In recent years, physicists have been exploring how these two theories can be combined to improve the accuracy of physical measurements. This paper investigates the idea that gravitational time dilation, a paradigmatic relativistic phenomenon, can be used in conjunction with quantum superpositions to enhance the precision of measuring the gravitational constant and its variations.

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Cited by

[1] Fumiya Nishimura, Yui Kuramochi, and Kazuhiro Yamamoto, "Classical gravitational effect on the standard quantum limit of finite-size optical lattice clocks in estimating gravitational potential", Physical Review A 108 6, 063112 (2023).

[2] Everett Patterson and Robert B. Mann, "Fisher information of a black hole spacetime", Journal of High Energy Physics 2023 6, 214 (2023).

[3] M. Basil Altaie, "Quantum Time: a novel resource for quantum information", arXiv:2310.16617, (2023).

[4] Germain Tobar, Simon Haine, Fabio Costa, and Magdalena Zych, "Mass-energy equivalence in gravitationally bound quantum states of the neutron", Physical Review A 106 5, 052801 (2022).

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