Initial-State Dependent Optimization of Controlled Gate Operations with Quantum Computer

Wonho Jang1, Koji Terashi2, Masahiko Saito2, Christian W. Bauer3, Benjamin Nachman3, Yutaro Iiyama2, Ryunosuke Okubo1, and Ryu Sawada2

1Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
2International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
3Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

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There is no unique way to encode a quantum algorithm into a quantum circuit. With limited qubit counts, connectivity, and coherence times, a quantum circuit optimization is essential to make the best use of near-term quantum devices. We introduce a new circuit optimizer called AQCEL, which aims to remove redundant controlled operations from controlled gates, depending on initial states of the circuit. Especially, the AQCEL can remove unnecessary qubit controls from multi-controlled gates in polynomial computational resources, even when all the relevant qubits are entangled, by identifying zero-amplitude computational basis states using a quantum computer. As a benchmark, the AQCEL is deployed on a quantum algorithm designed to model final state radiation in high energy physics. For this benchmark, we have demonstrated that the AQCEL-optimized circuit can produce equivalent final states with much smaller number of gates. Moreover, when deploying AQCEL with a noisy intermediate scale quantum computer, it efficiently produces a quantum circuit that approximates the original circuit with high fidelity by truncating low-amplitude computational basis states below certain thresholds. Our technique is useful for a wide variety of quantum algorithms, opening up new possibilities to further simplify quantum circuits to be more effective for real devices.

In a circuit-based quantum computation, a quantum algorithm needs to be first encoded into a quantum circuit to execute it on quantum hardware. This step is crucial but there is no unique way of efficiently doing this. In this article, we introduce a new tool called AQCEL, which aims to improve circuit encoding by simplifying a set of quantum gates used to implement a quantum algorithm. The AQCEL is an “initial-state dependent” circuit optimizer: when an original algorithm is designed to work with different initial states of a quantum circuit, the AQCEL attempts to optimize the circuit by removing unnecessary quantum gates or qubit controls, depending on a specific initial state at run time. The AQCEL performs this by focusing on multi-controlled gates in the circuit, decomposing them and eliminating unnecessary operations in polynomial time, based on the measurement of computational basis states with quantum hardware. The AQCEL is deployed on a quantum algorithm to model a fundamental process in high-energy physics called parton shower. We have demonstrated that the AQCEL efficiently produces a shorter-depth quantum circuit from the original one. Moreover, the AQCEL can approximate the original final state with high fidelity, resulting in significantly improved accuracy of the produced final state, when deploying with a noisy intermediate scale superconducting quantum computer. This technique is applicable for a wide range of quantum algorithms, opening up new possibilities to further improve the encoding of quantum algorithm into quantum circuit for real devices.

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