Stability Experiments: The Overlooked Dual of Memory Experiments

Craig Gidney

Google Quantum AI, Santa Barbara, California 93117, USA

Find this paper interesting or want to discuss? Scite or leave a comment on SciRate.

Abstract

Topological quantum computations are built on a foundation of two basic tasks: preserving logical observables through time and moving logical observables through space. Memory experiments, which check how well logical observables are preserved through time, are a well established benchmark. Strangely, there is no corresponding well established benchmark for moving logical observables through space. This paper tries to fill that gap with "stability experiments", which check how well a quantum error correction system can determine the product of a large region of stabilizers. Stability experiments achieve this by testing on a region that is locally a normal code but globally has a known product of stabilizers.

This paper proposes a simple experiment for benchmarking how good an error-correcting quantum computer is at combining a lot of measurements into one combined result. This is important to check because a computer system that can't reliably combine measurements can't be fault tolerant.

► BibTeX data

► References

[1] Christian Kraglund Andersen, Ants Remm, Stefania Lazar, Sebastian Krinner, Nathan Lacroix, Graham J Norris, Mihai Gabureac, Christopher Eichler, and Andreas Wallraff, ``Repeated quantum error detection in a surface code'' Nature Physics 16, 875-880 (2020).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1038/​s41567-020-0920-y

[2] Hector Bombin and Miguel Angel Martin-Delgado ``Topological quantum distillation'' Physical review letters 97, 180501 (2006).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1103/​PhysRevLett.97.180501

[3] Christopher Chamberland and Earl T Campbell ``Circuit-level protocol and analysis for twist-based lattice surgery'' Physical Review Research 4, 023090 (2022).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1103/​PhysRevResearch.4.023090

[4] Christopher Chamberland and Earl T Campbell ``Universal quantum computing with twist-free and temporally encoded lattice surgery'' PRX Quantum 3, 010331 (2022).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1103/​PRXQuantum.3.010331

[5] Christopher Chamberland, Kyungjoo Noh, Patricio Arrangoiz-Arriola, Earl T Campbell, Connor T Hann, Joseph Iverson, Harald Putterman, Thomas C Bohdanowicz, Steven T Flammia, and Andrew Keller, ``Building a fault-tolerant quantum computer using concatenated cat codes'' PRX Quantum 3, 010329 (2022).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1103/​PRXQuantum.3.010329

[6] A. G. Fowler, M. Mariantoni, J. M. Martinis, and A. N. Cleland, ``Surface codes: Towards practical large-scale quantum computation'' Phys. Rev. A 86, 032324 (2012) arXiv:1208.0928.
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1103/​PhysRevA.86.032324

[7] Austin G Fowler ``Optimal complexity correction of correlated errors in the surface code'' arXiv preprint arXiv:1310.0863 (2013).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.48550/​arXiv.1310.0863

[8] Craig Gidney, Michael Newman, Austin Fowler, and Michael Broughton, ``A fault-tolerant honeycomb memory'' Quantum 5, 605 (2021).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.22331/​q-2021-12-20-605

[9] Craig Gidney ``The Stim Circuit File Format (.stim)'' https:/​/​github.com/​quantumlib/​Stim/​blob/​main/​doc/​file_format_stim_circuit.md (2021) Accessed: 2021-08-16.
https:/​/​github.com/​quantumlib/​Stim/​blob/​main/​doc/​file_format_stim_circuit.md

[10] Craig Gidney ``Data for "Stability Experiments: The Overlooked Dual of Memory Experiments"'' (2022).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.5281/​zenodo.6859486

[11] Craig Gidney and Michael Newman ``Benchmarking the Planar Honeycomb Code'' arXiv preprint arXiv:2202.11845 (2022).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.48550/​arXiv.2202.11845

[12] Google Quantum AI ``Exponential suppression of bit or phase errors with cyclic error correction'' Nature 595, 383 (2021).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1038/​s41586-021-03588-y

[13] Matthew B Hastings and Jeongwan Haah ``Dynamically generated logical qubits'' Quantum 5, 564 (2021).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.22331/​q-2021-10-19-564

[14] Jeongwan Haah and Matthew B. Hastings ``Boundaries for the Honeycomb Code'' Quantum 6, 693 (2022).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.22331/​q-2022-04-21-693

[15] Clare Horsman, Austin G Fowler, Simon Devitt, and Rodney Van Meter, ``Surface code quantum computing by lattice surgery'' New Journal of Physics 14, 123011 (2012).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1088/​1367-2630/​14/​12/​123011

[16] Sebastian Krinner, Nathan Lacroix, Ants Remm, Agustin Di Paolo, Elie Genois, Catherine Leroux, Christoph Hellings, Stefania Lazar, Francois Swiadek, and Johannes Herrmann, ``Realizing repeated quantum error correction in a distance-three surface code'' Nature 605, 669–674 (2022).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1038/​s41586-022-04566-8

[17] Adam Paetznick, Christina Knapp, Nicolas Delfosse, Bela Bauer, Jeongwan Haah, Matthew B Hastings, and Marcus P da Silva, ``Performance of planar Floquet codes with Majorana-based qubits'' arXiv preprint arXiv:2202.11829 (2022).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.48550/​arXiv.2202.11829

[18] R. Raussendorf, J. Harrington, and K. Goyal, ``Topological fault-tolerance in cluster state quantum computation'' New J. Phys. 9, 199 (2007) quant-ph/​0703143.
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1088/​1367-2630/​9/​6/​199

[19] C Ryan-Anderson, JG Bohnet, K Lee, D Gresh, A Hankin, JP Gaebler, D Francois, A Chernoguzov, D Lucchetti, and NC Brown, ``Realization of real-time fault-tolerant quantum error correction'' Physical Review X 11, 041058 (2021).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1103/​PhysRevX.11.041058

[20] Google Quantum AI Team ``Suppressing quantum errors by scaling a surface code logical qubit'' arXiv preprint arXiv:2207.06431 (2022).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.48550/​arXiv.2207.06431

[21] Youwei Zhao, Yangsen Ye, He-Liang Huang, Yiming Zhang, Dachao Wu, Huijie Guan, Qingling Zhu, Zuolin Wei, Tan He, and Sirui Cao, ``Realization of an error-correcting surface code with superconducting qubits'' Physical Review Letters 129, 030501 (2022).
https:/​/​doi.org/​10.1103/​PhysRevLett.129.030501

Cited by

[1] György P. Gehér, Ophelia Crawford, and Earl T. Campbell, "Tangling Schedules Eases Hardware Connectivity Requirements for Quantum Error Correction", PRX Quantum 5 1, 010348 (2024).

[2] Craig Gidney, "Inplace Access to the Surface Code Y Basis", Quantum 8, 1310 (2024).

[3] Sophia Fuhui Lin, Joshua Viszlai, Kaitlin N. Smith, Gokul Subramanian Ravi, Charles Yuan, Frederic T. Chong, and Benjamin J. Brown, Proceedings of the 29th ACM International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems, Volume 2 216 (2024) ISBN:9798400703850.

[4] Xinyu Tan, Fang Zhang, Rui Chao, Yaoyun Shi, and Jianxin Chen, "Scalable Surface-Code Decoders with Parallelization in Time", PRX Quantum 4 4, 040344 (2023).

[5] Markus S. Kesselring, Julio C. Magdalena de la Fuente, Felix Thomsen, Jens Eisert, Stephen D. Bartlett, and Benjamin J. Brown, "Anyon Condensation and the Color Code", PRX Quantum 5 1, 010342 (2024).

[6] György P. Gehér, Ophelia Crawford, and Earl T. Campbell, 2023 IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering (QCE) 342 (2023) ISBN:979-8-3503-4323-6.

The above citations are from Crossref's cited-by service (last updated successfully 2024-05-21 05:58:14) and SAO/NASA ADS (last updated successfully 2024-05-21 05:58:16). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.