Universal Entanglement Transitions of Free Fermions with Long-range Non-unitary Dynamics

Pengfei Zhang1, Chunxiao Liu2, Shao-Kai Jian3, and Xiao Chen4

1Institute for Quantum Information and Matter and Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
2Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
3Condensed Matter Theory Center and Joint Quantum Institute, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
4Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA

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Abstract

Non-unitary evolution can give rise to novel steady states classified by their entanglement properties. In this work, we aim to understand the effect of long-range hopping that decays with $r^{-\alpha}$ in non-Hermitian free-fermion systems. We first study two solvable Brownian models with long-range non-unitary dynamics: a large-$N$ SYK$_2$ chain and a single-flavor fermion chain and we show that they share the same phase diagram. When $\alpha\gt0.5$, we observe two critical phases with subvolume entanglement scaling: (i) $\alpha\gt1.5$, a logarithmic phase with dynamical exponent $z=1$ and logarithmic subsystem entanglement, and (ii) $0.5 \lt \alpha \lt 1.5$, a fractal phase with $z=\frac{2\alpha-1}{2}$ and subsystem entanglement $S_A\propto L_A^{1-z}$, where $L_A$ is the length of the subsystem $A$. These two phases cannot be distinguished by the purification dynamics, in which the entropy always decays as $L/T$. We then confirm that the results are also valid for the static SYK$_2$ chain, indicating the phase diagram is universal for general free-fermion systems. We also discuss phase diagrams in higher dimensions and the implication in measurement-induced phase transitions.

We study the effect of long-range hopping in non-unitary non-Hermitian free-fermion systems. We first show that two solvable Brownian models: a large-$N$ SYK$_2$ chain and a single-flavor fermion chain share the same phase diagram, which contains novel critical phases including a logarithmic phase and a fractal phase. We then confirm that the results are also valid for the static SYK$_2$ chain, indicating the phase diagram is universal for general free-fermion systems.

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Cited by

[1] Davide Rossini and Ettore Vicari, "Coherent and dissipative dynamics at quantum phase transitions", Physics Reports 936, 1 (2021).

[2] Piotr Sierant, Giuliano Chiriacò, Federica M. Surace, Shraddha Sharma, Xhek Turkeshi, Marcello Dalmonte, Rosario Fazio, and Guido Pagano, "Dissipative Floquet Dynamics: from Steady State to Measurement Induced Criticality in Trapped-ion Chains", arXiv:2107.05669.

[3] Y. Minoguchi, P. Rabl, and M. Buchhold, "Continuous Gaussian Measurements of the Free Boson CFT: A model for Exactly Solvable and Detectable Measurement-Induced Dynamics", arXiv:2108.04256.

[4] Piotr Sierant and Xhek Turkeshi, "Universal Behavior beyond Multifractality of Wave Functions at Measurement-Induced Phase Transitions", Physical Review Letters 128 13, 130605 (2022).

[5] Tony Jin, João S. Ferreira, Michele Filippone, and Thierry Giamarchi, "Exact description of quantum stochastic models as quantum resistors", Physical Review Research 4 1, 013109 (2022).

[6] T. Botzung, S. Diehl, and M. Müller, "Engineered dissipation induced entanglement transition in quantum spin chains: From logarithmic growth to area law", Physical Review B 104 18, 184422 (2021).

[7] Tomohiro Hashizume, Gregory Bentsen, and Andrew J. Daley, "Measurement-induced phase transitions in sparse nonlocal scramblers", Physical Review Research 4 1, 013174 (2022).

[8] T. Boorman, M. Szyniszewski, H. Schomerus, and A. Romito, "Diagnostics of entanglement dynamics in noisy and disordered spin chains via the measurement-induced steady-state entanglement transition", Physical Review B 105 14, 144202 (2022).

[9] Shao-Kai Jian, Chunxiao Liu, Xiao Chen, Brian Swingle, and Pengfei Zhang, "Quantum error as an emergent magnetic field", arXiv:2106.09635.

[10] Pengfei Zhang, "Quantum entanglement in the Sachdev—Ye—Kitaev model and its generalizations", Frontiers of Physics 17 4, 43201 (2022).

[11] D. A. Ivanov, T. Yu. Ivanova, S. F. Caballero-Benitez, and I. B. Mekhov, "Tuning the universality class of phase transitions by feedback: Open quantum systems beyond dissipation", Physical Review A 104 3, 033719 (2021).

[12] T. Kalsi, A. Romito, and H. Schomerus, "Three-fold way of entanglement dynamics in monitored quantum circuits", Journal of Physics A Mathematical General 55 26, 264009 (2022).

The above citations are from SAO/NASA ADS (last updated successfully 2022-07-05 06:20:08). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.

On Crossref's cited-by service no data on citing works was found (last attempt 2022-07-05 06:20:06).