Entanglement in symmetric quantum states and the theory of copositive matrices are intimately related concepts. For the simplest symmetric states, i.e., the diagonal symmetric (DS) states, it has been shown that there exists a correspondence between exceptional (non-exceptional) copositive matrices and non-decomposable (decomposable) Entanglement Witnesses (EWs). Here we show that EWs of symmetric, but not DS, states can also be constructed from extended copositive matrices, providing new examples of bound entangled symmetric states, together with their corresponding EWs, in arbitrary odd dimensions.
For this reason, deciding whether a quantum state is entangled or not, is a problem of paramount importance whose solution, unfortunately, is known to be NP-hard in the general scenario.
In some cases, however, symmetries provide a useful framework to recast the separability problem in a simpler way, thus reducing the original complexity of this task.
In this work we focus on symmetric states, i.e., states that are invariant under permutations of the parties, showing how, in the case of the qudits, the characterization of the entanglement can be accomplished by means of a class of matrices known as copositive. In particular, we establish a connection between entanglement witnesses, i.e., hermitian operators that are able to detect entanglement, and copositive matrices, showing how only a subset of them, dubbed as exceptional, can be used to assess PPT-entanglement in any dimension, with the PPT-entangled edge states detected by the so-called extremal matrices.
Finally we illustrate our findings discussing some examples of families of PPT-entangled states in 3-level and 4-level systems, along with the entanglement witnesses that detect them.
We conjecture that any PPT-entangled state of two qudits can be detected by means of an entanglement witness of the form that we propose.
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