Crosstalk Suppression for Fault-tolerant Quantum Error Correction with Trapped Ions

Pedro Parrado-Rodríguez1, Ciarán Ryan-Anderson1,2, Alejandro Bermudez3, and Markus Müller4,5

1Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom
2Honeywell Quantum Solutions, 303 S. Technology Ct., Broomfield, Colorado 80021, USA
3Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
4Institute for Theoretical Nanoelectronics (PGI-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich, Germany
5JARA-Institute for Quantum Information, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, Germany

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Abstract

Physical qubits in experimental quantum information processors are inevitably exposed to different sources of noise and imperfections, which lead to errors that typically accumulate hindering our ability to perform long computations reliably. Progress towards scalable and robust quantum computation relies on exploiting quantum error correction (QEC) to actively battle these undesired effects. In this work, we present a comprehensive study of crosstalk errors in a quantum-computing architecture based on a single string of ions confined by a radio-frequency trap, and manipulated by individually-addressed laser beams. This type of errors affects spectator qubits that, ideally, should remain unaltered during the application of single- and two-qubit quantum gates addressed at a different set of active qubits. We microscopically model crosstalk errors from first principles and present a detailed study showing the importance of using a coherent vs incoherent error modelling and, moreover, discuss strategies to actively suppress this crosstalk at the gate level. Finally, we study the impact of residual crosstalk errors on the performance of fault-tolerant QEC numerically, identifying the experimental target values that need to be achieved in near-term trapped-ion experiments to reach the break-even point for beneficial QEC with low-distance topological codes.

Ion traps are one of the leading platforms for building scalable quantum computers, offering all-to-all connectivity between qubits encoded in ions that belong to same Coulomb crystal and having demonstrated high fidelity gate operations. These quantum processors, however, are susceptible to multiple sources of noise that can corrupt the results of the computations. The development and implementation of quantum error correction (QEC) techniques is thus crucial to allow for reliable and scalable quantum computing. In ion traps, one major source of errors can be crosstalk, a process that can happen when gates applied to a given set of qubits unwantedly affect neighbouring qubits. But how much does this error affect the computations, and how can it be handled?
In this work, we evaluate the effects of crosstalk on QEC protocols implemented on a state-of-the-art ion trap platform. Using realistic error models derived from first principles, and through extensive numerical simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of beneficial QEC and the efficiency of techniques like refocussing pulse sequences that can greatly suppress the detrimental effects of crosstalk.
The proposed techniques can be extended to other QEC codes, and our work can guide the path towards experimental realizations of error-corrected trapped-ion quantum processors.

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Cited by

[1] Chung-You Shih, Sainath Motlakunta, Nikhil Kotibhaskar, Manas Sajjan, Roland Hablützel, and Rajibul Islam, "Reprogrammable and high-precision holographic optical addressing of trapped ions for scalable quantum control", npj Quantum Information 7, 57 (2021).

[2] David Schwerdt, Yotam Shapira, Tom Manovitz, and Roee Ozeri, "Comparing Two-Qubit and Multi-Qubit Gates within the Toric Code", arXiv:2111.04047.

The above citations are from SAO/NASA ADS (last updated successfully 2021-12-07 23:08:20). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.

On Crossref's cited-by service no data on citing works was found (last attempt 2021-12-07 23:08:18).