Spectrally multimode integrated SU(1,1) interferometer

Alessandro Ferreri, Matteo Santandrea, Michael Stefszky, Kai H. Luo, Harald Herrmann, Christine Silberhorn, and Polina R. Sharapova

Department of Physics, Paderborn University, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn, Germany

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Nonlinear SU(1,1) interferometers are fruitful and promising tools for spectral engineering and precise measurements with phase sensitivity below the classical bound. Such interferometers have been successfully realized in bulk and fiber-based configurations. However, rapidly developing integrated technologies provide higher efficiencies, smaller footprints, and pave the way to quantum-enhanced on-chip interferometry. In this work, we theoretically realised an integrated architecture of the multimode SU(1,1) interferometer which can be applied to various integrated platforms. The presented interferometer includes a polarization converter between two photon sources and utilizes a continuous-wave (CW) pump. Based on the potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) platform, we show that this configuration results in almost perfect destructive interference at the output and supersensitivity regions below the classical limit. In addition, we discuss the fundamental difference between single-mode and highly multimode SU(1,1) interferometers in the properties of phase sensitivity and its limits. Finally, we explore how to improve the phase sensitivity by filtering the output radiation and using different seeding states in different modes with various detection strategies.

Interferometry has been a fundamental element in the history of Physics, and recently it got even a media impact during the first measurements of gravitational waves, beginning a revolution in Physics. The accuracy of interferometers is one of the main aims of metrology. It is well known that classical interferometers have a fundamental limitation of their precision, which, however, can be overcome using specific quantum light. Nonlinear interferometers, obtained by replacing beam splitters with nonlinear media, allow to beat the classical limit of accuracy even without preparing such exotic states of light. Despite the progressive implementation of new interferometer designs, current techniques did not include the spectral features of light in the phase sensitivity analysis, which, however, is very important due to multimodeness of photon sources. Finally, the tendency of miniaturization pushes the technology research to realize integrated devices, maintaining a high efficiency but reducing the footprint.

In this manuscript, we present an optimized design of an integrated nonlinear interferometer characterized by a wide range of spectral modes. The pondered design is based on real multimode photon sources and allows to compensate effects arising due to material dispersion, thereby maximizing the visibility of the interference pattern. The developed interferometer operates in a high sensitivity regime with an accuracy exceeding the classical bound, which has never been demonstrated in integrated platforms.

We believe that this work paves the way for a new class of high-performance integrated interferometers, which can have strong implications in future quantum technologies.

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