Thermodynamics of ultrastrongly coupled light-matter systems

Philipp Pilar, Daniele De Bernardis, and Peter Rabl

Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna, Austria

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Abstract

We study the thermodynamic properties of a system of two-level dipoles that are coupled ultrastrongly to a single cavity mode. By using exact numerical and approximate analytical methods, we evaluate the free energy of this system at arbitrary interaction strengths and discuss strong-coupling modifications of derivative quantities such as the specific heat or the electric susceptibility. From this analysis we identify the lowest-order cavity-induced corrections to those quantities in the collective ultrastrong coupling regime and show that for even stronger interactions the presence of a single cavity mode can strongly modify extensive thermodynamic quantities of a large ensemble of dipoles. In this non-perturbative coupling regime we also observe a significant shift of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature and a characteristic broadening and collapse of the black-body spectrum of the cavity mode. Apart from a purely fundamental interest, these general insights will be important for identifying potential applications of ultrastrong-coupling effects, for example, in the field of quantum chemistry or for realizing quantum thermal machines.

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Cited by

[1] Yuto Ashida, Atac Imamoglu, Jerome Faist, Dieter Jaksch, Andrea Cavalleri, and Eugene Demler, "Quantum Electrodynamic Control of Matter: Cavity-Enhanced Ferroelectric Phase Transition", arXiv:2003.13695.

[2] Michael Schuler, Daniele De Bernardis, Andreas M. Läuchli, and Peter Rabl, "The Vacua of Dipolar Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics", arXiv:2004.13738.

[3] M. Salado-Mejía, R. Román-Ancheyta, F. Soto-Eguibar, and H. M. Moya-Cessa, "Spectroscopy and critical quantum thermometry in the ultrastrong coupling regime", arXiv:2009.01994.

[4] Yuto Ashida, Atac Imamoglu, and Eugene Demler, "Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics at Arbitrary Light-Matter Coupling Strengths", arXiv:2010.03583.

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