Weak approximate unitary designs and applications to quantum encryption

Cécilia Lancien1 and Christian Majenz2

1Institut de Mathématiques de Toulouse & CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
2QuSoft and Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Science Park 123, 1098 XG Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

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Unitary $t$-designs are the bread and butter of quantum information theory and beyond. An important issue in practice is that of efficiently constructing good approximations of such unitary $t$-designs. Building on results by Aubrun (Comm. Math. Phys. 2009), we prove that sampling $d^t\mathrm{poly}(t,\log d, 1/\epsilon)$ unitaries from an exact $t$-design provides with positive probability an $\epsilon$-approximate $t$-design, if the error is measured in one-to-one norm. As an application, we give a randomized construction of a quantum encryption scheme that has roughly the same key size and security as the quantum one-time pad, but possesses the additional property of being non-malleable against adversaries without quantum side information.

Unitary designs play an important role in quantum information theory and
beyond. Applications include the ubiquitous decoupling technique in
quantum information theory, quantum encryption, randomized benchmarking
and more. In this article, we study a weaker form of approximate unitary
designs motivated by operations on isolated quantum systems. We show
that approximate unitary designs of much smaller size exist in this
restricted setting compared to the general setting. We exemplify the
usefulness of such objects by describing a construction of a quantum
encryption scheme that, in addition to ensuring confidentiality of a
message akin to the quantum one-time pad, protects the message against
tampering by attackers without (or with small) quantum memory.

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► References

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