Clifford recompilation for faster classical simulation of quantum circuits

Hammam Qassim1,3, Joel J. Wallman2,3, and Joseph Emerson1,2,3

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
2Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
3Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, Canada

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Simulating quantum circuits classically is an important area of research in quantum information, with applications in computational complexity and validation of quantum devices. One of the state-of-the-art simulators, that of Bravyi et al, utilizes a randomized sparsification technique to approximate the output state of a quantum circuit by a stabilizer sum with a reduced number of terms. In this paper, we describe an improved Monte Carlo algorithm for performing randomized sparsification. This algorithm reduces the runtime of computing the approximate state by the factor $\ell/m$, where $\ell$ and $m$ are respectively the total and non-Clifford gate counts. The main technique is a circuit recompilation routine based on manipulating exponentiated Pauli operators. The recompilation routine also facilitates numerical search for Clifford decompositions of products of non-Clifford gates, which can further reduce the runtime in certain cases by reducing the 1-norm of the vector of expansion, ${\lVert a \rVert}_1$. It may additionally lead to a framework for optimizing circuit implementations over a gate-set, reducing the overhead for state-injection in fault-tolerant implementations. We provide a concise exposition of randomized sparsification, and describe how to use it to estimate circuit amplitudes in a way which can be generalized to a broader class of gates and states. This latter method can be used to obtain additive error estimates of circuit probabilities with a faster runtime than the full techniques of Bravyi et al. Such estimates are useful for validating near-term quantum devices provided that the target probability is not exponentially small.

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[4] James R. Seddon, Bartosz Regula, Hakop Pashayan, Yingkai Ouyang, and Earl T. Campbell, "Quantifying Quantum Speedups: Improved Classical Simulation From Tighter Magic Monotones", PRX Quantum 2 1, 010345 (2021).

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[6] Tomislav Begušić, Johnnie Gray, and Garnet Kin-Lic Chan, "Fast and converged classical simulations of evidence for the utility of quantum computing before fault tolerance", Science Advances 10 3, eadk4321 (2024).

[7] Filipa C. R. Peres and Ernesto F. Galvão, "Quantum circuit compilation and hybrid computation using Pauli-based computation", Quantum 7, 1126 (2023).

[8] Gaurav Saxena and Gilad Gour, "Quantifying multiqubit magic channels with completely stabilizer-preserving operations", Physical Review A 106 4, 042422 (2022).

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