Single-shot energetic-based estimator for entanglement in a half-parity measurement setup

Cyril Elouard1,2, Alexia Auffèves2, and Géraldine Haack3

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
2CNRS and Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut Néel, F-38042 Grenoble, France
3Université de Genève, Department of Applied Physics, Chemin de Pinchat 22, CH-1211 Genève 4, Switzerland

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Producing and certifying entanglement between distant qubits is a highly desirable skill for quantum information technologies. Here we propose a new strategy to monitor and characterize entanglement genesis in a half parity measurement setup, that relies on the continuous readout of an energetic observable which is the half-parity observable itself. Based on a quantum-trajectory approach, we theoretically analyze the statistics of energetic fluctuations for a pair of continuously monitored qubits. We quantitatively relate these energetic fluctuations to the rate of entanglement produced between the qubits, and build an energetic-based estimator to assess the presence of entanglement in the circuit. Remarkably, this estimator is valid at the single-trajectory level and shows to be robust against finite detection efficiency. Our work paves the road towards a fundamental understanding of the stochastic energetic processes associated with entanglement genesis, and opens new perspectives for witnessing quantum correlations thanks to quantum thermodynamic quantities.

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Cited by

[1] Alexia Auffèves, "A short story of quantum and information thermodynamics", SciPost Physics Lecture Notes 27 (2021).

[2] Alain Sarlette, "Deducing entanglement from signal fluctuations", Quantum Views 3, 23 (2019).

[3] M. H. Mohammady, A. Auffèves, and J. Anders, "Energetic footprints of irreversibility in the quantum regime", Communications Physics 3 1, 89 (2020).

[4] Gonzalo Manzano and Roberta Zambrini, "Quantum thermodynamics under continuous monitoring: A general framework", AVS Quantum Science 4 2, 025302 (2022).

[5] Teng Ma, Ming-Jing Zhao, Shao-Ming Fei, and Man-Hong Yung, "Necessity for quantum coherence of nondegeneracy in energy flow", arXiv:1802.08821, Physical Review A 99 6, 062303 (2019).

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