Hamiltonian Simulation by Qubitization

Guang Hao Low1 and Isaac L. Chuang2

1Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
2Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Physics, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

We present the problem of approximating the time-evolution operator $e^{-i\hat{H}t}$ to error $\epsilon$, where the Hamiltonian $\hat{H}=(\langle G|\otimes\hat{\mathcal{I}})\hat{U}(|G\rangle\otimes\hat{\mathcal{I}})$ is the projection of a unitary oracle $\hat{U}$ onto the state $|G\rangle$ created by another unitary oracle. Our algorithm solves this with a query complexity $\mathcal{O}\big(t+\log({1/\epsilon})\big)$ to both oracles that is optimal with respect to all parameters in both the asymptotic and non-asymptotic regime, and also with low overhead, using at most two additional ancilla qubits. This approach to Hamiltonian simulation subsumes important prior art considering Hamiltonians which are $d$-sparse or a linear combination of unitaries, leading to significant improvements in space and gate complexity, such as a quadratic speed-up for precision simulations. It also motivates useful new instances, such as where $\hat{H}$ is a density matrix. A key technical result is `qubitization', which uses the controlled version of these oracles to embed any $\hat{H}$ in an invariant $\text{SU}(2)$ subspace. A large class of operator functions of $\hat{H}$ can then be computed with optimal query complexity, of which $e^{-i\hat{H}t}$ is a special case.

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► References

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