The dynamical Casimir effect is an intriguing phenomenon in which photons are generated from vacuum due to a non-adiabatic change in some boundary conditions. In particular, it connects the motion of an accelerated mechanical mirror to the generation of photons. While pioneering experiments demonstrating this effect exist, a conclusive measurement involving a mechanical generation is still missing. We show that a hybrid system consisting of a piezoelectric mechanical resonator coupled to a superconducting cavity may allow to electro-mechanically generate measurable photons from vacuum, intrinsically associated to the dynamical Casimir effect. Such an experiment may be achieved with current technology, based on film bulk acoustic resonators directly coupled to a superconducting cavity. Our results predict a measurable photon generation rate, which can be further increased through additional improvements such as using superconducting metamaterials.
 M. E. Peskin and D. V. Schroeder, An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory (ISBN: 978-0201503975, Westview Press, 1995).
 H. B. G. Casimir, On the attraction between two perfectly conducting plates, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. B 51, 793 (1948).
 S. K. Lamoreaux, Progress in Experimental Measurements of the Surface-Surface Casimir Force: Electrostatic Calibrations and Limitations to Accuracy, Casimir Physics, Lecture Notes in Physics, pp. 219–248, (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011).
 V. V. Dodonov, Current status of the dynamical Casimir effect, Phys. Scr. 82, 038105 (2010).
 E. Yablonovitch, Accelerating Reference Frame for Electromagnetic Waves in a Rapidly Growing Plasma: Unruh-Davies-Fulling-DeWitt Radiation and the Nonadiabatic Casimir Effect, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1742 (1989).
 J.-Y. Ji, H.-H. Jung, J.-W. Park, and K.-S. Soh, Production of photons by the parametric resonance in the dynamical Casimir effect, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4440 (1997).
 M. Uhlmann, G. Plunien, R. Schützhold, and G. Soff, Resonant Cavity Photon Creation via the Dynamical Casimir Effect, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 193601 (2004).
 M. Crocce, D. A. R. Dalvit, F. C. Lombardo, and F. D. Mazzitelli, Model for resonant photon creation in a cavity with time-dependent conductivity, Phys. Rev. A 70, 033811 (2004).
 W.-J. Kim, J. H. Brownell, and R. Onofrio, Detectability of Dissipative Motion in Quantum Vacuum via Superradiance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 200402 (2006).
 J. R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C. M. Wilson, and F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir Effect in a Superconducting Coplanar Waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147003 (2009).
 J. R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C. M. Wilson, and F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting microwave circuits, Phys. Rev. A 82, 052509 (2010).
 D. A. R. Dalvit, P. A. M. Neto, and F. D. Mazzitelli, Fluctuations, Dissipation and the Dynamical Casimir Effect, Casimir Physics, Lecture Notes in Physics, pp. 419–457 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011).
 P. D. Nation, J. R. Johansson, M. P. Blencowe, and F. Nori, Stimulating uncertainty: Amplifiying the quantum vacuum with superconducting circuits, Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 1 (2012).
 C. M. Wilson, G. Johansson, A. Pourkabirian, M. Simoen, J. R. Johansson, T. Duty, F. Nori, and P. Delsing, Observation of the dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting circuit, Nature 479, 376 (2011).
 P. Lähteenmäki, G. S. Paraoanu, J. Hassel, and P. J. Hakonen, Dynamical Casimir effect in a Josephson metamaterial, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 4234 (2013).
 F. Galve, L. A. Pachón, D. Zueco, Bringing Entanglement to the High Temperature Limit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180501 (2010).
 J. R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C. M. Wilson, P. Delsing, and F. Nori, Nonclassical microwave radiation from the dynamical Casimir effect, Phys. Rev. A 87, 043804 (2013).
 S. Felicetti, M. Sanz, L. Lamata, G. Romero, G. Johansson, P. Delsing, and E. Solano, Dynamical Casimir Effect Entangles Artificial Atoms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 093602 (2014).
 D. Z. Rossatto, S. Felicetti, H. Eneriz, E. Rico, M. Sanz, and E. Solano, Entangling polaritons via dynamical Casimir effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics, Phys. Rev. B 93, 094514 (2016).
 B. H. Schneider, A. Bengtsson, I. M. Svensson, T. Aref, G. Johansson, J. Bylander, P. Delsing, Observation of broadband entanglement in microwave radiation from the dynamical Casimir effect, arXiv:1802.05529 [quant-ph] (2018).
 M. Sandberg, F. Persson, I. C. Hoi, C. M. Wilson, P. Delsing, Exploring circuit quantum electrodynamics using a widely tunable superconducting resonator, Physica Scripta T137, 014018 (2009).
 J. D. Larson III, P. D. Bradley, S. Wartenberg, and R. C. Ruby, Modified Butterworth–Van Dyke circuit for FBAR resonators and automated measurement system, Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium 1, 863 (2000).
 K. Nam, et al., Piezoelectric properties of aluminium nitride for thin film bulk acoustic wave resonator, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 47, S309 (2005).
 E. P. Menzel et al., Dual-Path State Reconstruction Scheme for Propagating Quantum Microwaves and Detector Noise Tomography, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 100401 (2010).
 R. Di Candia et al., Dual-path methods for propagating quantum microwaves, New J. Phys. 16, 015001 (2014).
 N. A. Masluk, I. M. Pop, A. Kamal, Z. K. Minev, M. H. Devoret, Microwave characterization of Josephson junction arrays: implementing a low loss superinductance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 137002 (2012).
 T. Weissl, B. Küng, E. Dumur, A. K. Feofanov, I. Matei, C. Naud, O. Buisson, F. W. J. Hekking, and W. Guichard, Kerr coefficients of plasma resonances in Josephson junction chains, Phys. Rev. B 92, 104508 (2015).
 R. Di Candia et al., Quantum teleportation of propagating quantum microwaves, EPJ Quantum Technology 2, 25 (2015).
 K. G. Fedorov et al., Displacement of propagating squeezed microwave states, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 020502 (2016).
 H. Jin, S. R. Dong, J. K. Luo, and W. I. Milne, Generalised Butterworth–Van Dyke equivalent circuit for thin-film bulk acoustic resonator, Electronic Letters 47, 424 (2011).
 S. Lee, Design and Modeling of Ferroelectric BST FBARs for Switchable RF Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters (PhD Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2016).
 M.-A. Dubois and P. Muralt, Properties of aluminum nitride thin films for piezoelectric transducers and microwave filter applications, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3032 (1999).
 Lucas C. Céleri, Daniel Huerga, Francisco Albarrán-Arriagada, Enrique Solano, Mikel Garcia de Andoin, and Mikel Sanz, "Digital-Analog Quantum Simulation of Fermionic Models", Physical Review Applied 19 6, 064086 (2023).
 Nicolás F. Del Grosso, Fernando C. Lombardo, and Paula I. Villar, "Photon generation via the dynamical Casimir effect in an optomechanical cavity as a closed quantum system", Physical Review A 100 6, 062516 (2019).
 Adrian Parra-Rodriguez, Pavel Lougovski, Lucas Lamata, Enrique Solano, and Mikel Sanz, "Digital-analog quantum computation", Physical Review A 101 2, 022305 (2020).
 E. Jansen, J. D. P. Machado, and Ya. M. Blanter, "Realization of a degenerate parametric oscillator in electromechanical systems", Physical Review B 99 4, 045401 (2019).
 Miles P. Blencowe and Hui Wang, "Analogue gravity on a superconducting chip", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 378 2177, 20190224 (2020).
 Andreson L. C. Rego, Alessandra N. Braga, Jeferson Danilo L. Silva, and Danilo T. Alves, "Dynamical Casimir effect enhanced by decreasing the mirror reflectivity", Physical Review D 105 2, 025013 (2022).
 Ana Martin, Lucas Lamata, Enrique Solano, and Mikel Sanz, "Digital-analog quantum algorithm for the quantum Fourier transform", Physical Review Research 2 1, 013012 (2020).
 Jeferson Danilo L. Silva, Alessandra N. Braga, Andreson L. C. Rego, and Danilo T. Alves, "Motion induced by asymmetric excitation of the quantum vacuum", Physical Review D 102 12, 125019 (2020).
 Danilo T. Alves, Edney R. Granhen, João Paulo da S. Alves, and Williams A. Lima, "Relativistic bands in the discrete spectrum of created particles in an oscillating cavity", Physical Review D 102 12, 125012 (2020).
 Lilia M. Woods, Matthias Krüger, and Victor V. Dodonov, "Perspective on Some Recent and Future Developments in Casimir Interactions", Applied Sciences 11 1, 293 (2020).
 Hui Wang and Miles Blencowe, "Coherently amplifying photon production from vacuum with a dense cloud of accelerating photodetectors", Communications Physics 4 1, 128 (2021).
 Wei Qin, Vincenzo Macrì, Adam Miranowicz, Salvatore Savasta, and Franco Nori, "Emission of photon pairs by mechanical stimulation of the squeezed vacuum", Physical Review A 100 6, 062501 (2019).
 Matthew J. Gorban, William D. Julius, and Gerald B. Cleaver, "The Asymmetric Dynamical Casimir Effect", Physics 5 2, 398 (2023).
 Shabir Barzanjeh, André Xuereb, Simon Gröblacher, Mauro Paternostro, Cindy A. Regal, and Eva M. Weig, "Optomechanics for quantum technologies", Nature Physics 18 1, 15 (2022).
 Hui Wang, M. P. Blencowe, C. M. Wilson, and A. J. Rimberg, "Mechanically generating entangled photons from the vacuum: A microwave circuit-acoustic resonator analog of the oscillatory Unruh effect", Physical Review A 99 5, 053833 (2019).
 Nicolás F. Del Grosso, Fernando C. Lombardo, Francisco D. Mazzitelli, and Paula I. Villar, "Adiabatic Shortcuts Completion in Quantum Field Theory: Annihilation of Created Particles", Entropy 25 9, 1249 (2023).
 V V Dodonov, "Dynamical Casimir effect meets material science", IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 474, 012009 (2019).
 Brian P Dolan, Aonghus Hunter-McCabe, and Jason Twamley, "Shaking photons from the vacuum: acceleration radiation from vibrating atoms", New Journal of Physics 22 3, 033026 (2020).
 Viktor Dodonov, "Fifty Years of the Dynamical Casimir Effect", Physics 2 1, 67 (2020).
The above citations are from Crossref's cited-by service (last updated successfully 2023-11-29 09:55:35) and SAO/NASA ADS (last updated successfully 2023-11-29 09:55:35). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.
This Paper is published in Quantum under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. Copyright remains with the original copyright holders such as the authors or their institutions.