Energy-efficient quantum non-demolition measurement with a spin-photon interface

Maria Maffei1, Bruno O. Goes2, Stephen C. Wein2,3, Andrew N. Jordan4,5, Loïc Lanco6, and Alexia Auffèves7,8

1Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy
2Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, Institut Néel, 38000 Grenoble, France
3Quandela SAS, 10 Boulevard Thomas Gobert, 91120 Palaiseau, France
4Institute for Quantum Studies, Chapman University, 1 University Drive, Orange, CA 92866, USA
5Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
6Université Paris Cité, Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (C2N), F-91120 Palaiseau, France
7MajuLab, CNRS–UCA-SU-NUS-NTU International Joint Research Laboratory
8Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 117543 Singapore, Singapore

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Spin-photon interfaces (SPIs) are key devices of quantum technologies, aimed at coherently transferring quantum information between spin qubits and propagating pulses of polarized light. We study the potential of a SPI for quantum non demolition (QND) measurements of a spin state. After being initialized and scattered by the SPI, the state of a light pulse depends on the spin state. It thus plays the role of a pointer state, information being encoded in the light's temporal and polarization degrees of freedom. Building on the fully Hamiltonian resolution of the spin-light dynamics, we show that quantum superpositions of zero and single photon states outperform coherent pulses of light, producing pointer states which are more distinguishable with the same photon budget. The energetic advantage provided by quantum pulses over coherent ones is maintained when information on the spin state is extracted at the classical level by performing projective measurements on the light pulses. The proposed schemes are robust against imperfections in state of the art semi-conducting devices.

Spin-photon interfaces (SPIs) are key devices of quantum technologies, aimed at coherently transferring quantum information between spin qubits (storage qubits) and propagating pulses of polarized light (flying qubits). Following a pathway recently opened in the fields of quantum technology and quantum metrology, we explore the potential of SPIs to perform energy-efficient operations by exploiting quantum resources. The operation that we analyze is the main building block of most SPIs-based technological applications: the spin’s quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement. After being initialized and scattered by the SPI, the state of a light pulse depends on the spin state. It thus plays the role of a pointer state, information being encoded in the light's temporal and polarization degrees of freedom. Our study is grounded on a novel, fully Hamiltonian, resolution of the spin-light dynamics based on a generalization of the collision model. We explore the impact of different photonic statistics of the propagating field on the quality of the QND measurement at fixed energy. We focus on a low-energy regime where the light carries a maximum of one excitation in average and compare a coherent field with a quantum superposition of zero and single photon states. We find that the latter gives rise to a more precise spin’s QND measurement than the former hence providing an energetic quantum advantage. We show that this advantage is robust against realistic imperfections of state-of-the-art SPIs’ implementations with quantum dots.

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