Amplitude Ratios and Neural Network Quantum States
IBM Quantum, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center
|Published:||2023-03-02, volume 7, page 938|
|Citation:||Quantum 7, 938 (2023).|
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Neural Network Quantum States (NQS) represent quantum wavefunctions by artificial neural networks. Here we study the wavefunction access provided by NQS defined in [Science, 355, 6325, pp. 602-606 (2017)] and relate it to results from distribution testing. This leads to improved distribution testing algorithms for such NQS. It also motivates an independent definition of a wavefunction access model: the amplitude ratio access. We compare it to sample and sample and query access models, previously considered in the study of dequantization of quantum algorithms. First, we show that the amplitude ratio access is strictly stronger than sample access. Second, we argue that the amplitude ratio access is strictly weaker than sample and query access, but also show that it retains many of its simulation capabilities. Interestingly, we only show such separation under computational assumptions. Lastly, we use the connection to distribution testing algorithms to produce an NQS with just three nodes that does not encode a valid wavefunction and cannot be sampled from.
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