Performance analysis of quantum repeaters enabled by deterministically generated photonic graph states

Yuan Zhan1, Paul Hilaire2, Edwin Barnes2, Sophia E. Economou2, and Shuo Sun1

11 JILA and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
2Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

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Abstract

By encoding logical qubits into specific types of photonic graph states, one can realize quantum repeaters that enable fast entanglement distribution rates approaching classical communication. However, the generation of these photonic graph states requires a formidable resource overhead using traditional approaches based on linear optics. Overcoming this challenge, a number of new schemes have been proposed that employ quantum emitters to deterministically generate photonic graph states. Although these schemes have the potential to significantly reduce the resource cost, a systematic comparison of the repeater performance among different encodings and different generation schemes is lacking. Here, we quantitatively analyze the performance of quantum repeaters based on two different graph states, i.e. the tree graph states and the repeater graph states. For both states, we compare the performance between two generation schemes, one based on a single quantum emitter coupled to ancillary matter qubits, and one based on a single quantum emitter coupled to a delayed feedback. We identify the numerically optimal scheme at different system parameters. Our analysis provides a clear guideline on the selection of the generation scheme for graph-state-based quantum repeaters, and lays out the parameter requirements for future experimental realizations of different schemes.

One of the major obstacles in developing a quantum internet is the loss of photons during transmission. Overcoming this challenge, researchers have proposed encoding quantum information into the entanglement of multiple photons and refreshing the information at intermediate quantum repeaters. This approach provides a way to correct photon loss more efficiently. In this work, the performance and resource costs of quantum repeater protocols based on different multi-photon entangled states and their generation schemes are analyzed and compared. Our results provide valuable insights for experimental implementations of these protocols and help determine the optimal protocol for various system conditions.

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Cited by

[1] Koji Azuma, Sophia E. Economou, David Elkouss, Paul Hilaire, Liang Jiang, Hoi-Kwong Lo, and Ilan Tzitrin, "Quantum repeaters: From quantum networks to the quantum internet", Reviews of Modern Physics 95 4, 045006 (2023).

[2] Thomas J. Bell, Love A. Pettersson, and Stefano Paesani, "Optimizing Graph Codes for Measurement-Based Loss Tolerance", PRX Quantum 4 2, 020328 (2023).

[3] Naphan Benchasattabuse, Michal Hajdušek, and Rodney Van Meter, "Architecture and protocols for all-photonic quantum repeaters", arXiv:2306.03748, (2023).

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