Error mitigation with Clifford quantum-circuit data

Piotr Czarnik, Andrew Arrasmith, Patrick J. Coles, and Lukasz Cincio

Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA.

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Abstract

Achieving near-term quantum advantage will require accurate estimation of quantum observables despite significant hardware noise. For this purpose, we propose a novel, scalable error-mitigation method that applies to gate-based quantum computers. The method generates training data $\{X_i^{\text{noisy}},X_i^{\text{exact}}\}$ via quantum circuits composed largely of Clifford gates, which can be efficiently simulated classically, where $X_i^{\text{noisy}}$ and $X_i^{\text{exact}}$ are noisy and noiseless observables respectively. Fitting a linear ansatz to this data then allows for the prediction of noise-free observables for arbitrary circuits. We analyze the performance of our method versus the number of qubits, circuit depth, and number of non-Clifford gates. We obtain an order-of-magnitude error reduction for a ground-state energy problem on 16 qubits in an IBMQ quantum computer and on a 64-qubit noisy simulator.

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