Quantum repeaters based on individual electron spins and nuclear-spin-ensemble memories in quantum dots

Kenneth Sharman, Faezeh Kimiaee Asadi, Stephen C Wein, and Christoph Simon

Institute for Quantum Science and Technology, and Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada

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Inspired by recent developments in the control and manipulation of quantum dot nuclear spins, which allow for the transfer of an electron spin state to the surrounding nuclear-spin ensemble for storage, we propose a quantum repeater scheme that combines individual quantum dot electron spins and nuclear-spin ensembles, which serve as spin-photon interfaces and quantum memories respectively. We consider the use of low-strain quantum dots embedded in high-cooperativity optical microcavities. Quantum dot nuclear-spin ensembles allow for the long-term storage of entangled states, and heralded entanglement swapping is performed using cavity-assisted gates. We highlight the advances in quantum dot technologies required to realize our quantum repeater scheme which promises the establishment of high-fidelity entanglement over long distances with a distribution rate exceeding that of the direct transmission of photons.

The establishment of a quantum internet is required to realize many promising applications of quantum science including quantum key distribution, dense coding, and distributed quantum computing. The long-distance transmission of information is typically subject to loss, which in classical communications can be overcome using optical amplifiers. A similar approach is not possible in quantum communication due to the no-cloning theorem, which states that it is impossible to create a copy of an unknown quantum state. Transmission loss can, however, be overcome in quantum communication using a method known as the quantum repeater approach. Quantum repeaters eliminate the need for direct transmission across the network by distributing entanglement over a series of locally established links. The links are then connected through entanglement swapping to extend the entanglement over the length of the communication channel. The resulting entanglement can be used for long distance quantum communication.

Long-lived quantum memories to store entanglement are essential components of many quantum repeater protocols. Inspired by recent developments in the control and manipulation of quantum dot nuclear spins, which allow for the possibility of transferring entanglement to the nuclear ensemble for storage, we propose a quantum repeater scheme that combines individual quantum dot electron spins and nuclear-spin ensembles with microcavities. Our research includes analysis of both the entanglement quality and the rate at which entanglement can be established over long distances using our proposed quantum repeater scheme.

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[1] Tim Coopmans, Sebastiaan Brand, and David Elkouss, "Improved analytical bounds on delivery times of long-distance entanglement", Physical Review A 105 1, 012608 (2022).

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