Quantum routing with fast reversals

Aniruddha Bapat1,4, Andrew M. Childs1,2,3, Alexey V. Gorshkov1,4, Samuel King5, Eddie Schoute1,2,3, and Hrishee Shastri6

1Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science, NIST/University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
2Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
3Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
4Joint Quantum Institute, NIST/University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
5University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA
6Reed College, Portland, Oregon 97202, USA

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We present methods for implementing arbitrary permutations of qubits under interaction constraints. Our protocols make use of previous methods for rapidly reversing the order of qubits along a path. Given nearest-neighbor interactions on a path of length $n$, we show that there exists a constant $\epsilon \approx 0.034$ such that the quantum routing time is at most $(1-\epsilon)n$, whereas any swap-based protocol needs at least time $n-1$. This represents the first known quantum advantage over swap-based routing methods and also gives improved quantum routing times for realistic architectures such as grids. Furthermore, we show that our algorithm approaches a quantum routing time of $2n/3$ in expectation for uniformly random permutations, whereas swap-based protocols require time $n$ asymptotically. Additionally, we consider sparse permutations that route $k \le n$ qubits and give algorithms with quantum routing time at most $n/3 + O(k^2)$ on paths and at most $2r/3 + O(k^2)$ on general graphs with radius $r$.

To run large-scale quantum algorithms on future quantum computing devices, we must translate high-level descriptions of algorithms into programs that can be executed on the hardware. These instructions must respect constraints imposed by the capabilities of the device. In particular, quantum computers typically have limited connectivity, in which only some pairs of qubits can directly interact. We can nevertheless perform a gate between any pair of qubits by moving the information in these qubits to new physical locations that support direct interaction—effectively implementing a permutation of the qubits—and then applying the gate. This “quantum routing” process introduces overhead that we would like to minimize.
In this paper we investigate how a novel primitive, called state reversal, can be used to perform quantum routing more quickly. Quantum routing is traditionally implemented using SWAP gates, which exchange two qubits. However, there is a protocol that uses nearest-neighbor quantum interactions to reverse the order of qubits on a path about three times faster than is possible using SWAP gates. We show how to use state reversal to implement an arbitrary permutation faster than is possible using SWAP gates. While the speedup is small (about 3%), this is the first such proven speedup that we are aware of for general routing. In the average case, we see even better performance: a factor-2/3 speedup over SWAP routing.

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Cited by

[1] Cynthia Chen, Bruno Schmitt, Helena Zhang, Lev S. Bishop, and Ali Javadi-Abhar, Proceedings of the 59th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference 7 (2022) ISBN:9781450391429.

[2] Giacomo Nannicini, Lev S. Bishop, Oktay Günlük, and Petar Jurcevic, "Optimal qubit assignment and routing via integer programming", arXiv:2106.06446, ACM Transactions on Quantum Computing 3544563 (2022).

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