Quantum interference of "clocks", namely of particles with time-evolving internal degrees of freedom (DOFs), is a promising avenue to test genuine general relativistic effects in quantum systems. The clock acquires which path information while experiencing different proper times on traversing the arms of the interferometer, leading to a drop in its path visibility. We consider scenarios where the clock is subject to environmental noise as it transits through the interferometer. In particular, we develop a generalized formulation of interferometric visibility affected by noise on the clock. We find that, for small noise and small proper time difference between the arms, the noise further reduces the visibility, while in more general situations it can either increase or reduce the visibility. As an example, we investigate the effect of a thermal environment constituted by a single field mode and show that the visibility drops further as the temperature is increased. Additionally, by considering noise models based on standard quantum channels, we show that interferometric visibility can increase or decrease depending on the type of noise and also the time scale and transition probabilities. The quantification of the effect of noise on the visibility – particularly in the case of a thermal environment paves the way for a better estimate on the expected outcome in an actual experiment.
 Magdalena Zych, Fabio Costa, Igor Pikovski, and Caslav Brukner, ``Quantum interferometric visibility as a witness of general relativistic proper time'' Nature Communications 2, 505 (2011).
 M Zych, I Pikovski, F Costa, and Č Brukner, ``General relativistic effects in quantum interference of "clocks"'' Journal of Physics: Conference Series 723, 012044 (2016).
 Daniel Carney, Philip C E Stamp, and Jacob M Taylor, ``Tabletop experiments for quantum gravity: a user's manual'' Classical and Quantum Gravity 36, 034001 (2019).
 Sougato Bose, Anupam Mazumdar, Gavin W. Morley, Hendrik Ulbricht, Marko Toroš, Mauro Paternostro, Andrew A. Geraci, Peter F. Barker, M. S. Kim, and Gerard Milburn, ``Spin Entanglement Witness for Quantum Gravity'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 240401 (2017).
 C. Marlettoand V. Vedral ``Gravitationally Induced Entanglement between Two Massive Particles is Sufficient Evidence of Quantum Effects in Gravity'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 240402 (2017).
 Alessio Belenchia, Robert M. Wald, Flaminia Giacomini, Esteban Castro-Ruiz, Časlav Brukner, and Markus Aspelmeyer, ``Quantum superposition of massive objects and the quantization of gravity'' Phys. Rev. D 98, 126009 (2018).
 Tanjung Krisnanda, Guo Yao Tham, Mauro Paternostro, and Tomasz Paterek, ``Observable quantum entanglement due to gravity'' npj Quantum Information 6, 12 (2020).
 Ryan J. Marshman, Anupam Mazumdar, and Sougato Bose, ``Locality and entanglement in table-top testing of the quantum nature of linearized gravity'' Phys. Rev. A 101, 052110 (2020).
 Hadrien Chevalier, A. J. Paige, and M. S. Kim, ``Witnessing the nonclassical nature of gravity in the presence of unknown interactions'' Phys. Rev. A 102, 022428 (2020).
 T. Kovachy, P. Asenbaum, C. Overstreet, C. A. Donnelly, S. M. Dickerson, A. Sugarbaker, J. M. Hogan, and M. A. Kasevich, ``Quantum superposition at the half-metre scale'' Nature 528, 530 (2015).
 Liang Hu, Nicola Poli, Leonardo Salvi, and Guglielmo M. Tino, ``Atom Interferometry with the Sr Optical Clock Transition'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 263601 (2017).
 Yaakov Y. Fein, Philipp Geyer, Patrick Zwick, Filip Kialka, Sebastian Pedalino, Marcel Mayor, Stefan Gerlich, and Markus Arndt, ``Quantum superposition of molecules beyond 25 kDa'' Nature Physics (2019).
 Victoria Xu, Matt Jaffe, Cristian D. Panda, Sofus L. Kristensen, Logan W. Clark, and Holger Müller, ``Probing gravity by holding atoms for 20 seconds'' Science 366, 745–749 (2019).
 Tobias Westphal, Hans Hepach, Jeremias Pfaff, and Markus Aspelmeyer, ``Measurement of gravitational coupling between millimetre-sized masses'' Nature 591, 225–228 (2021).
 T Scheidl, E Wille, and R Ursin, ``Quantum optics experiments using the International Space Station: a proposal'' New Journal of Physics 15, 043008 (2013).
 David Edward Bruschi, Timothy C. Ralph, Ivette Fuentes, Thomas Jennewein, and Mohsen Razavi, ``Spacetime effects on satellite-based quantum communications'' Phys. Rev. D 90, 045041 (2014).
 Giuseppe Vallone, Daniele Dequal, Marco Tomasin, Francesco Vedovato, Matteo Schiavon, Vincenza Luceri, Giuseppe Bianco, and Paolo Villoresi, ``Interference at the Single Photon Level Along Satellite-Ground Channels'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 253601 (2016).
 R. Colella, A. W. Overhauser, and S. A. Werner, ``Observation of Gravitationally Induced Quantum Interference'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1472–1474 (1975).
 Zhifan Zhou, Yair Margalit, Daniel Rohrlich, Yonathan Japha, and Ron Folman, ``Quantum complementarity of clocks in the context of general relativity'' Classical and Quantum Gravity 35, 185003 (2018).
 Christopher Hilweg, Francesco Massa, Denis Martynov, Nergis Mavalvala, Piotr T Chruściel, and Philip Walther, ``Gravitationally induced phase shift on a single photon'' New Journal of Physics 19, 033028 (2017).
 P A Bushev, J H Cole, D Sholokhov, N Kukharchyk, and M Zych, ``Single electron relativistic clock interferometer'' New Journal of Physics 18, 093050 (2016).
 Magdalena Zych, Fabio Costa, Igor Pikovski, Timothy C Ralph, and Časlav Brukner, ``General relativistic effects in quantum interference of photons'' Classical and Quantum Gravity 29, 224010 (2012).
 Daniel M. Greenberger, Wolfgang P. Schleich, and Ernst M. Rasel, ``Relativistic effects in atom and neutron interferometry and the differences between them'' Phys. Rev. A 86, 063622 (2012).
 Sina Loriani, Alexander Friedrich, Christian Ufrecht, Fabio Di Pumpo, Stephan Kleinert, Sven Abend, Naceur Gaaloul, Christian Meiners, Christian Schubert, Dorothee Tell, Étienne Wodey, Magdalena Zych, Wolfgang Ertmer, Albert Roura, Dennis Schlippert, Wolfgang P. Schleich, Ernst M. Rasel, and Enno Giese, ``Interference of clocks: A quantum twin paradox'' Science Advances 5 (2019).
 D.E. Krause, E. Fischbach, and Z.J. Rohrbach, ``A priori which-way information in quantum interference with unstable particles'' Physics Letters A 378, 2490 –2494 (2014).
 Yair Margalit, Zhifan Zhou, Shimon Machluf, Daniel Rohrlich, Yonathan Japha, and Ron Folman, ``A self-interfering clock as a "which path" witness'' Science 349, 1205–1208 (2015).
 Igor Pikovski, Magdalena Zych, Fabio Costa, and Časlav Brukner, ``Time dilation in quantum systems and decoherence'' New Journal of Physics 19, 025011 (2017).
 I. Neder, M. Heiblum, D. Mahalu, and V. Umansky, ``Entanglement, Dephasing, and Phase Recovery via Cross-Correlation Measurements of Electrons'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 036803 (2007).
 E. T. Jaynesand F. W. Cummings ``Comparison of quantum and semiclassical radiation theories with application to the beam maser'' Proceedings of the IEEE 51, 89–109 (1963).
 Peter Asenbaum, Chris Overstreet, Tim Kovachy, Daniel D. Brown, Jason M. Hogan, and Mark A. Kasevich, ``Phase Shift in an Atom Interferometer due to Spacetime Curvature across its Wave Function'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 183602 (2017).
 Masashi Ban ``Two-qubit correlation in two independent environments with indefiniteness'' Physics Letters A 385, 126936 (2021).
The above citations are from SAO/NASA ADS (last updated successfully 2023-11-29 10:23:24). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.
On Crossref's cited-by service no data on citing works was found (last attempt 2023-11-29 10:23:23).
This Paper is published in Quantum under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. Copyright remains with the original copyright holders such as the authors or their institutions.