Computational universality of symmetry-protected topologically ordered cluster phases on 2D Archimedean lattices

Austin K. Daniel, Rafael N. Alexander, and Akimasa Miyake

Center for Quantum Information and Control, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA

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What kinds of symmetry-protected topologically ordered (SPTO) ground states can be used for universal measurement-based quantum computation in a similar fashion to the 2D cluster state? 2D SPTO states are classified not only by global on-site symmetries but also by subsystem symmetries, which are fine-grained symmetries dependent on the lattice geometry. Recently, all states within so-called SPTO cluster phases on the square and hexagonal lattices have been shown to be universal, based on the presence of subsystem symmetries and associated structures of quantum cellular automata. Motivated by this observation, we analyze the computational capability of SPTO cluster phases on all vertex-translative 2D Archimedean lattices. There are four subsystem symmetries here called ribbon, cone, fractal, and 1-form symmetries, and the former three are fundamentally in one-to-one correspondence with three classes of Clifford quantum cellular automata. We conclude that nine out of the eleven Archimedean lattices support universal cluster phases protected by one of the former three symmetries, while the remaining lattices possess 1-form symmetries and have a different capability related to error correction.

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[3] Caroline de Groot, David T Stephen, Andras Molnar, and Norbert Schuch, "Inaccessible entanglement in symmetry protected topological phases", Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 53 33, 335302 (2020).

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[7] Daniel Azses, Rafael Haenel, Yehuda Naveh, Robert Raussendorf, Eran Sela, and Emanuele G. Dalla Torre, "Identification of Symmetry-Protected Topological States on Noisy Quantum Computers", Physical Review Letters 125 12, 120502 (2020).

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