Time-delocalized quantum subsystems and operations: on the existence of processes with indefinite causal structure in quantum mechanics

Ognyan Oreshkov

QuIC, Ecole polytechnique de Bruxelles, C.P. 165, Université libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium

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It has been shown that it is theoretically possible for there to exist higher-order quantum processes in which the operations performed by separate parties cannot be ascribed a definite causal order. Some of these processes are believed to have a physical realization in standard quantum mechanics via coherent control of the times of the operations. A prominent example is the quantum SWITCH, which was recently demonstrated experimentally. However, the interpretation of such experiments as realizations of a process with indefinite causal structure as opposed to some form of simulation of such a process has remained controversial. Where exactly are the local operations of the parties in such an experiment? On what spaces do they act given that their times are indefinite? Can we probe them directly rather than assume what they ought to be based on heuristic considerations? How can we reconcile the claim that these operations really take place, each once as required, with the fact that the structure of the presumed process implies that they cannot be part of any acyclic circuit? Here, I offer a precise answer to these questions: the input and output systems of the operations in such a process are generally nontrivial subsystems of Hilbert spaces that are tensor products of Hilbert spaces associated with systems at different times---a fact that is directly experimentally verifiable. With respect to these time-delocalized subsystems, the structure of the process is one of a circuit with a causal cycle. This provides a rigorous sense in which processes with indefinite causal structure can be said to exist within the known quantum mechanics. I also identify a whole class of isometric processes, of which the quantum SWITCH is a special case, that admit a physical realization on time-delocalized subsystems. These results unveil a novel structure within quantum mechanics, which may have important implications for physics and information processing.

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[54] Very recently, after the submission of this paper, the author and colleagues J. Barrett and R. Lorenz showed via different methods that all bipartite processes that are unitarily extendible are causally separable, and hence their unitary extensions are variations of the quantum SWITCH (in preparation). Nevertheless, we believe that the proof of realizability presented here has a particular value since it is based on a different idea that could have wider applications. In particular, it provides the basis for the generalization in Sec. 7, and might be useful in the search for realizations of more complicated unitary processes.

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