Pilot-assisted intradyne reception for high-speed continuous-variable quantum key distribution with true local oscillator

Fabian Laudenbach1,2, Bernhard Schrenk1, Christoph Pacher1, Michael Hentschel1, Chi-Hang Fred Fung3, Fotini Karinou3, Andreas Poppe3, Momtchil Peev3, and Hannes Hübel1

1Security & Communication Technologies, Center for Digital Safety & Security, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Giefinggasse 4, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2Quantum Optics, Quantum Nanophysics & Quantum Information, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna, Austria
3Optical and Quantum Laboratory, Munich Research Center, Huawei Technologies Duesseldorf GmbH, Riesstrasse 25-C3, 80992 Munich, Germany

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We present a pilot-assisted coherent intradyne reception methodology for CV-QKD with true local oscillator. An optically phase-locked reference tone, prepared using carrier-suppressed optical single-sideband modulation, is multiplexed in polarisation and frequency to the 250 Mbaud quantum signal in order to provide optical frequency- and phase matching between quantum signal and local oscillator. Our concept allows for high symbol rates and can be operated at an extremely low excess-noise level, as validated by experimental measurements.

Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a method to establish symmetric encryption keys at two distant sites. Thanks to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the so-called no-cloning theorem, these keys are guaranteed to be exclusively known by the trusted communicators. Any potential attempt to eavesdrop on the key exchange will inevitalbly disturb the transmitted quantum states and can therefore be easily detected -- this is why QKD is secured on a physical layer, in contrast to public-key encryption which relies on computational hardness assumptions.

QKD can be exercised with both, single photons or weak coherent states. The latter approach encodes the quantum information in the continuous phase and amplitude of the electromagnetic field of light and is therefore referred to as continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD). As a main advantage of CV-QKD, this approach uses standard off-the-shelf components from the optical-telecommunication industry and can therefore be seamlessly integrated into existing telecom networks.

This article addresses an open problem in CV-QKD: to establish a stable phase- and frequency reference between transmitter and receiver (required for coherent detection) that does neither compromise the low noise level nor the symbol rate. As we believe, our method to co-transmit an optical reference signal, multiplexed to the quantum signal in modulation frequency and polarisation, constitutes a convincing answer to this problem. Harnessing the best practices from the highly advnced telecom industry, our transceiver operates at exceptionally high rate and low noise and thereby elevates QKD to a new level of technological maturity.

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[1] Tobias A. Eriksson, Ruben S. Luis, Benjamin J. Puttnam, Georg Rademacher, Mikio Fujiwara, Yoshinari Awaji, Hideaki Furukawa, Naoya Wada, Masahiro Takeoka, and Masahide Sasaki, "Wavelength Division Multiplexing of 194 Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution Channels", Journal of Lightwave Technology 38 8, 2214 (2020).

[2] R. Valivarthi, S. Etcheverry, J. Aldama, F. Zwiehoff, and V. Pruneri, "Plug-and-play continuous-variable quantum key distribution for metropolitan networks", Optics Express 28 10, 14547 (2020).

[3] Feihu Xu, Xiongfeng Ma, Qiang Zhang, Hoi-Kwong Lo, and Jian-Wei Pan, "Secure quantum key distribution with realistic devices", Reviews of Modern Physics 92 2, 025002 (2020).

[4] Fabian Laudenbach, Christoph Pacher, Chi-Hang Fred Fung, Andreas Poppe, Momtchil Peev, Bernhard Schrenk, Michael Hentschel, Philip Walther, and Hannes Hübel, "Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Gaussian Modulation -- The Theory of Practical Implementations", arXiv:1703.09278.

[5] Ryo Namiki, Akira Kitagawa, and Takuya Hirano, "Secret key rate of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution scheme when the detection process is inaccessible to eavesdroppers", Physical Review A 98 4, 042319 (2018).

[6] Sebastian Kleis, Max Rueckmann, and Christian G. Schaeffer, "Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Real Local Oscillator and without Auxiliary Signals", arXiv:1908.03625.

[7] Hou-Man Chin, Nitin Jain, Darko Zibar, Tobias Gehring, and Ulrik L. Andersen, "Effect of filter shape on excess noise performance in continuous variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian modulation", arXiv:1808.04573.

[8] Mi Zou, Yingqiu Mao, and Teng-Yun Chen, "Phase estimation using homodyne detection for continuous variable quantum key distribution", Journal of Applied Physics 126 6, 063105 (2019).

[9] Sören Kreinberg, Igor Koltchanov, Piotr Novik, Saleem Alreesh, Fabian Laudenbach, Christoph Pacher, Hannes Hübel, and André Richter, "Modelling Weak-Coherent CV-QKD Systems Using a Classical Simulation Framework", arXiv:2004.14703.

The above citations are from Crossref's cited-by service (last updated successfully 2020-07-11 10:23:50) and SAO/NASA ADS (last updated successfully 2020-07-11 10:23:51). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.