Quantum key distribution is on the verge of real world applications, where perfectly secure information can be distributed among multiple parties. Several quantum cryptographic protocols have been theoretically proposed and independently realized in different experimental conditions. Here, we develop an experimental platform based on high-dimensional orbital angular momentum states of single photons that enables implementation of multiple quantum key distribution protocols with a single experimental apparatus. Our versatile approach allows us to experimentally survey different classes of quantum key distribution techniques, such as the 1984 Bennett & Brassard (BB84), tomographic protocols including the six-state and the Singapore protocol, and to investigate, for the first time, a recently introduced differential phase shift (Chau15) protocol using twisted photons. This enables us to experimentally compare the performance of these techniques and discuss their benefits and deficiencies in terms of noise tolerance in different dimensions.
 Bennett, C. H. & Brassard, G., Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing, Proceedings of the ieee international conference on computers, systems, and signal processing, bangalore, india, 1984 (1984).
 Cerf, N. J., Bourennane, M., Karlsson, A. & Gisin, N. Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
 Allen, L., Beijersbergen, M. W., Spreeuw, R. & Woerdman, J. Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
 Heckenberg, N., McDuff, R., Smith, C. & White, A. Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms, Opt. Lett. 17, 221–223 (1992).
 Bolduc, E., Bent, N., Santamato, E., Karimi, E. & Boyd, R. W. Exact solution to simultaneous intensity and phase encryption with a single phase-only hologram, Opt. Lett. 38, 3546–3549 (2013).
 Forbes, A., Dudley, A. & McLaren, M. Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators, Advances in Optics and Photonics 8, 200–227 (2016).
 Mafu, M. et al. Higher-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum-based quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases, Phys. Rev. A 88, 032305 (2013).
 Mirhosseini, M. et al. High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light, New J. Phys. 17, 033033 (2015).
 Vallone, G. et al. Free-space quantum key distribution by rotation-invariant twisted photons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 060503 (2014).
 Krenn, M., Handsteiner, J., Fink, M., Fickler, R. & Zeilinger, A. Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna, PNAS 112, 14197–14201 (2015).
 Babazadeh, A. et al. High-dimensional single-photon quantum gates: concepts and experiments, Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 180510 (2017).
 Chuang, I. L. & Nielsen, M. A. Prescription for experimental determination of the dynamics of a quantum black box, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2455–2467 (1997).
 Lo, H.-K., Chau, H. F., & Ardehali, M. Efficient Quantum Key Distribution Scheme and a Proof of Its Unconditional Security, Journal of Cryptology 18, 133–165 (2005).
 Brádler, K., Mirhosseini, M., Fickler, R., Broadbent, A. & Boyd, R. Finite-key security analysis for multilevel quantum key distribution, New Journal of Physics 18, 073030 (2016).
 Ding, Y. et al. High-dimensional quantum key distribution based on multicore fiber using silicon photonic integrated circuits, npj Quantum Information 3, 25 (2017).
 Genovese, M. & Traina, P. Review on qudits production and their application to quantum communication and studies on local realism, Advanced Science Letters 1, 153–160 (2008).
 Bouchard, F., Fickler, R., Boyd, R. W. & Karimi, E. High-dimensional quantum cloning and applications to quantum hacking, Science Adv. 3, e1601915 (2017).
 Bent, N. et al. Experimental realization of quantum tomography of photonic qudits via symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures, Phys. Rev. X 5, 041006 (2015).
 Bouchard F., Sit A., Heshami K., Fickler R. & Karimi E. Round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution with twisted photons, Phys. Rev. A 98, 010301(R) (2018).
 Chau, H., Wang, Q. & Wong, C. Experimentally feasible quantum-key-distribution scheme using qubit-like qudits and its comparison with existing qubit-and qudit-based protocols, Phys. Rev. A 95, 022311 (2017).
 Qassim, H. et al. Limitations to the determination of a laguerre–gauss spectrum via projective, phase-flattening measurement, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, A20–A23 (2014).
 Wang, S. et al. Proof-of-principle experimental realization of a qubit-like qudit-based quantum key distribution scheme, Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 025006 (2018).
 Bouchard, F., Sit, A., Hufnagel, F., Abbas, A., Zhang, Y., Heshami, K., Fickler, R., Marquardt, C., Leuchs, G., Boyd, R. W. & Karimi, E. Quantum cryptography with twisted photons through an outdoor underwater channel, Opt. Express 26, 22563–22573 (2018).
 Bongioanni, I., Sansoni, L., Sciarrino, F., Vallone, G., & Mataloni, P., Experimental quantum process tomography of non-trace-preserving maps, Phys. Rev. A 82, 042307 (2010).
 Bouchard, F., Hufnagel, F., Koutnỳ, D., Abbas, A., Sit, A., Heshami, K., Fickler, R. & Karimi, E., Full characterization of a high-dimensional quantum communication channel, arXiv preprint arXiv:1806.08018 (2018).
 Antonio Manzalini, "Topological Photonics for Optical Communications and Quantum Computing", Quantum Reports 2 4, 579 (2020).
 Wei Li, Le Wang, and Shengmei Zhao, "Phase Matching Quantum Key Distribution based on Single-Photon Entanglement", Scientific Reports 9 1, 15466 (2019).
 Gianluca Ruffato, Michele Massari, Pietro Capaldo, and Filippo Romanato, "Holographic Silicon Metasurfaces for Total Angular Momentum Demultiplexing Applications in Telecom", Applied Sciences 9 11, 2387 (2019).
 Hasnaa Hajji and Morad El Baz, "Qutrit-based semi-quantum key distribution protocol", Quantum Information Processing 20 1, 4 (2021).
 Jiapeng Zhao, Yiyu Zhou, Boris Braverman, Cong Liu, Kai Pang, Nicholas K. Steinhoff, Glenn A. Tyler, Alan E. Willner, and Robert W. Boyd, "Performance of real-time adaptive optics compensation in a turbulent channel with high-dimensional spatial-mode encoding", Optics Express 28 10, 15376 (2020).
 Yonggi Jo, Hee Park, Seung-Woo Lee, and Wonmin Son, "Efficient High-Dimensional Quantum Key Distribution with Hybrid Encoding", Entropy 21 1, 80 (2019).
 Felix Hufnagel, Alicia Sit, Florence Grenapin, Frédéric Bouchard, Khabat Heshami, Duncan England, Yingwen Zhang, Benjamin J. Sussman, Robert W. Boyd, Gerd Leuchs, and Ebrahim Karimi, "Characterization of an underwater channel for quantum communications in the Ottawa River", Optics Express 27 19, 26346 (2019).
 Aayam Bista, Baibhav Sharma, and Enrique J. Galvez, "A demonstration of quantum key distribution with entangled photons for the undergraduate laboratory", American Journal of Physics 89 1, 111 (2021).
 Daniele Cozzolino, Beatrice Da Lio, Davide Bacco, and Leif Katsuo Oxenløwe, "High‐Dimensional Quantum Communication: Benefits, Progress, and Future Challenges", Advanced Quantum Technologies 2 12, 1900038 (2019).
 Frédéric Bouchard, Felix Hufnagel, Dominik Koutný, Aazad Abbas, Alicia Sit, Khabat Heshami, Robert Fickler, and Ebrahim Karimi, "Quantum process tomography of a high-dimensional quantum communication channel", Quantum 3, 138 (2019).
 Robert Fickler, Frédéric Bouchard, Enno Giese, Vincenzo Grillo, Gerd Leuchs, and Ebrahim Karimi, "Full-field mode sorter using two optimized phase transformations for high-dimensional quantum cryptography", Journal of Optics 22 2, 024001 (2020).
 Ziqing Wang, Robert Malaney, and Benjamin Burnett, "Satellite-To-Earth Quantum Key Distribution via Orbital Angular Momentum", Physical Review Applied 14 6, 064031 (2020).
 Sebastian Ecker, Frédéric Bouchard, Lukas Bulla, Florian Brandt, Oskar Kohout, Fabian Steinlechner, Robert Fickler, Mehul Malik, Yelena Guryanova, Rupert Ursin, and Marcus Huber, "Overcoming Noise in Entanglement Distribution", Physical Review X 9 4, 041042 (2019).
 Calum Maitland and Fabio Biancalana, "Angular momentum supercontinuum from fibre rings", Journal of Optics 22 1, 015503 (2020).
 Dongxu Chen, Liyun Zhang, and Junhua Zhang, "Quantum teleportation with mutually unbiased bases", Quantum Information Processing 19 4, 121 (2020).
 Eileen Otte, Isaac Nape, Carmelo Rosales-Guzmán, Cornelia Denz, Andrew Forbes, and Bienvenu Ndagano, "High-dimensional cryptography with spatial modes of light: tutorial", Journal of the Optical Society of America B 37 11, A309 (2020).
 Armin Tavakoli, Denis Rosset, and Marc-Olivier Renou, "Enabling Computation of Correlation Bounds for Finite-Dimensional Quantum Systems via Symmetrization", Physical Review Letters 122 7, 070501 (2019).
 Wei Li and Shengmei Zhao, "Generation of two-photon orbital-angular-momentum entanglement with a high degree of entanglement", Applied Physics Letters 114 4, 041105 (2019).
 Gerd Leuchs, Christoph Marquardt, Luis L. Sánchez-Soto, and Dmitry V. Strekalov, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VII 495 (2020) ISBN:9780128165027.
 Felix Hufnagel, Alicia Sit, Frédéric Bouchard, Yingwen Zhang, Duncan England, Khabat Heshami, Benjamin J Sussman, and Ebrahim Karimi, "Investigation of underwater quantum channels in a 30 meter flume tank using structured photons", New Journal of Physics 22 9, 093074 (2020).
 Armin Tavakoli, Ingemar Bengtsson, Nicolas Gisin, and Joseph M. Renes, "Compounds of symmetric informationally complete measurements and their application in quantum key distribution", Physical Review Research 2 4, 043122 (2020).
 Xingyu Wang, Tianyi Wu, Chen Dong, Haonan Zhu, Zhuodan Zhu, and Shanghong Zhao, "Integrating deep learning to achieve phase compensation for free-space orbital-angular-momentum-encoded quantum key distribution under atmospheric turbulence", Photonics Research 9 2, B9 (2021).
 Ilaria Gianani, Marco Sbroscia, and Marco Barbieri, "Measuring the time–frequency properties of photon pairs: A short review", AVS Quantum Science 2 1, 011701 (2020).
 Amir Hossein Fahim Raouf, Majid Safari, and Murat Uysal, "Performance analysis of quantum key distribution in underwater turbulence channels", Journal of the Optical Society of America B 37 2, 564 (2020).
 Markus Hiekkamäki, Shashi Prabhakar, and Robert Fickler, "Near-perfect measuring of full-field transverse-spatial modes of light", Optics Express 27 22, 31456 (2019).
 Frédéric Bouchard, Alicia Sit, Khabat Heshami, Robert Fickler, and Ebrahim Karimi, "Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with twisted photons", Physical Review A 98 1, 010301 (2018).
 Hugo Defienne, Matthew Reichert, and Jason W. Fleischer, "Adaptive Quantum Optics with Spatially Entangled Photon Pairs", Physical Review Letters 121 23, 233601 (2018).
 Fang-Xiang Wang, Wei Chen, Zhen-Qiang Yin, Shuang Wang, Guang-Can Guo, and Zheng-Fu Han, "Characterizing High-Quality High-Dimensional Quantum Key Distribution by State Mapping Between Different Degrees of Freedom", Physical Review Applied 11 2, 024070 (2019).
 Dongkai Zhang, Xiaodong Qiu, Wuhong Zhang, and Lixiang Chen, "Violation of a Bell inequality in two-dimensional state spaces for radial quantum number", Physical Review A 98 4, 042134 (2018).
 J. Miguel-Ramiro and W. Dür, "Efficient entanglement purification protocols for d -level systems", Physical Review A 98 4, 042309 (2018).
The above citations are from Crossref's cited-by service (last updated successfully 2021-01-23 05:01:46) and SAO/NASA ADS (last updated successfully 2021-01-23 05:01:47). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.
This Paper is published in Quantum under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. Copyright remains with the original copyright holders such as the authors or their institutions.