Quantum key distribution is on the verge of real world applications, where perfectly secure information can be distributed among multiple parties. Several quantum cryptographic protocols have been theoretically proposed and independently realized in different experimental conditions. Here, we develop an experimental platform based on high-dimensional orbital angular momentum states of single photons that enables implementation of multiple quantum key distribution protocols with a single experimental apparatus. Our versatile approach allows us to experimentally survey different classes of quantum key distribution techniques, such as the 1984 Bennett & Brassard (BB84), tomographic protocols including the six-state and the Singapore protocol, and to investigate, for the first time, a recently introduced differential phase shift (Chau15) protocol using twisted photons. This enables us to experimentally compare the performance of these techniques and discuss their benefits and deficiencies in terms of noise tolerance in different dimensions.
 Bennett, C. H. & Brassard, G., Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing, Proceedings of the ieee international conference on computers, systems, and signal processing, bangalore, india, 1984 (1984).
 Cerf, N. J., Bourennane, M., Karlsson, A. & Gisin, N. Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
 Allen, L., Beijersbergen, M. W., Spreeuw, R. & Woerdman, J. Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes, Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
 Bolduc, E., Bent, N., Santamato, E., Karimi, E. & Boyd, R. W. Exact solution to simultaneous intensity and phase encryption with a single phase-only hologram, Opt. Lett. 38, 3546-3549 (2013).
 Forbes, A., Dudley, A. & McLaren, M. Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators, Advances in Optics and Photonics 8, 200-227 (2016).
 Mafu, M. et al. Higher-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum-based quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases, Phys. Rev. A 88, 032305 (2013).
 Krenn, M., Handsteiner, J., Fink, M., Fickler, R. & Zeilinger, A. Twisted photon entanglement through turbulent air across Vienna, PNAS 112, 14197-14201 (2015).
 Lo, H.-K., Chau, H. F., & Ardehali, M. Efficient Quantum Key Distribution Scheme and a Proof of Its Unconditional Security, Journal of Cryptology 18, 133-165 (2005).
 Brádler, K., Mirhosseini, M., Fickler, R., Broadbent, A. & Boyd, R. Finite-key security analysis for multilevel quantum key distribution, New Journal of Physics 18, 073030 (2016).
 Ding, Y. et al. High-dimensional quantum key distribution based on multicore fiber using silicon photonic integrated circuits, npj Quantum Information 3, 25 (2017).
 Genovese, M. & Traina, P. Review on qudits production and their application to quantum communication and studies on local realism, Advanced Science Letters 1, 153-160 (2008).
 Bent, N. et al. Experimental realization of quantum tomography of photonic qudits via symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures, Phys. Rev. X 5, 041006 (2015).
 Bouchard F., Sit A., Heshami K., Fickler R. & Karimi E. Round-robin differential phase-shift quantum key distribution with twisted photons, Phys. Rev. A 98, 010301(R) (2018).
 Chau, H., Wang, Q. & Wong, C. Experimentally feasible quantum-key-distribution scheme using qubit-like qudits and its comparison with existing qubit-and qudit-based protocols, Phys. Rev. A 95, 022311 (2017).
 Qassim, H. et al. Limitations to the determination of a laguerre-gauss spectrum via projective, phase-flattening measurement, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, A20-A23 (2014).
 Wang, S. et al. Proof-of-principle experimental realization of a qubit-like qudit-based quantum key distribution scheme, Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 025006 (2018).
 Bouchard, F., Sit, A., Hufnagel, F., Abbas, A., Zhang, Y., Heshami, K., Fickler, R., Marquardt, C., Leuchs, G., Boyd, R. W. & Karimi, E. Quantum cryptography with twisted photons through an outdoor underwater channel, Opt. Express 26, 22563-22573 (2018).
 Bongioanni, I., Sansoni, L., Sciarrino, F., Vallone, G., & Mataloni, P., Experimental quantum process tomography of non-trace-preserving maps, Phys. Rev. A 82, 042307 (2010).
 Bouchard, F., Hufnagel, F., Koutnỳ, D., Abbas, A., Sit, A., Heshami, K., Fickler, R. & Karimi, E., Full characterization of a high-dimensional quantum communication channel, arXiv preprint arXiv:1806.08018 (2018).
 Dongkai Zhang, Xiaodong Qiu, Wuhong Zhang, and Lixiang Chen, "Violation of a Bell inequality in two-dimensional state spaces for radial quantum number", Physical Review A 98 4, 042134 (2018).
 J. Miguel-Ramiro and W. Dür, "Efficient entanglement purification protocols for d -level systems", Physical Review A 98 4, 042309 (2018).
 Yonggi Jo, Hee Park, Seung-Woo Lee, and Wonmin Son, "Efficient High-Dimensional Quantum Key Distribution with Hybrid Encoding", Entropy 21 1, 80 (2019).
 Frédéric Bouchard, Felix Hufnagel, Dominik Koutný, Aazad Abbas, Alicia Sit, Khabat Heshami, Robert Fickler, and Ebrahim Karimi, "Quantum process tomography of a high-dimensional quantum communication channel", arXiv:1806.08018 (2018).
 Hugo Defienne, Matthew Reichert, and Jason W. Fleischer, "Adaptive Quantum Optics with Spatially Entangled Photon Pairs", Physical Review Letters 121 23, 233601 (2018).
 Fang-Xiang Wang, Wei Chen, Zhen-Qiang Yin, Shuang Wang, Guang-Can Guo, and Zheng-Fu Han, "Characterizing high-quality high-dimensional quantum key distribution by state mapping between different degree of freedoms", arXiv:1810.02067 (2018).
 Frédéric Bouchard, Alicia Sit, Khabat Heshami, Robert Fickler, and Ebrahim Karimi, "Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with twisted photons", Physical Review A 98 1, 010301 (2018).
 Armin Tavakoli, Denis Rosset, and Marc-Olivier Renou, "Enabling Computation of Correlation Bounds for Finite-Dimensional Quantum Systems via Symmetrization", Physical Review Letters 122 7, 070501 (2019).
 Wei Li and Shengmei Zhao, "Generation of two-photon orbital-angular-momentum entanglement with a high degree of entanglement", Applied Physics Letters 114 4, 041105 (2019).
The above citations are from Crossref's cited-by service (last updated 2019-03-19 10:34:30) and SAO/NASA ADS (last updated 2019-03-19 10:34:31). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.
This Paper is published in Quantum under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. Copyright remains with the original copyright holders such as the authors or their institutions.