Realist interpretations of quantum mechanics presuppose the existence of elements of reality that are independent of the actions used to reveal them. Such a view is challenged by several no-go theorems that show quantum correlations cannot be explained by non-contextual ontological models, where physical properties are assumed to exist prior to and independently of the act of measurement. However, all such contextuality proofs assume a traditional notion of causal structure, where causal influence flows from past to future according to ordinary dynamical laws. This leaves open the question of whether the apparent contextuality of quantum mechanics is simply the signature of some exotic causal structure, where the future might affect the past or distant systems might get correlated due to non-local constraints. Here we show that quantum predictions require a deeper form of contextuality: even allowing for arbitrary causal structure, no model can explain quantum correlations from non-contextual ontological properties of the world, be they initial states, dynamical laws, or global constraints.
 A. Cabello, ``Experimentally testable state-independent quantum contextuality,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 210401 (2008).
 M. D. Mazurek, M. F. Pusey, R. Kunjwal, K. J. Resch, and R. W. Spekkens, ``An experimental test of noncontextuality without unphysical idealizations,'' Nat. commun. 7, 11780 (2016).
 A. Chailloux, I. Kerenidis, S. Kundu, and J. Sikora, ``Optimal bounds for parity-oblivious random access codes,'' New J. Phys. 18, 045003 (2016).
 R. W. Spekkens, D. H. Buzacott, A. J. Keehn, B. Toner, and G. J. Pryde, ``Preparation contextuality powers parity-oblivious multiplexing,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 010401 (2009).
 H. Price, ``Does time-symmetry imply retrocausality? How the quantum world says “Maybe”?,'' Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 43, 75–83 (2012).
 M. S. Leifer and M. F. Pusey, ``Is a time symmetric interpretation of quantum theory possible without retrocausality?,'' Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 473, (2017).
 A. Carati and L. Galgani, ``Nonlocality of classical electrodynamics of point particles, and violation of Bell's inequalities,'' Nuovo Cimento B 114, 489–500 (1999).
 C. J. Wood and R. W. Spekkens, ``The lesson of causal discovery algorithms for quantum correlations: Causal explanations of Bell-inequality violations require fine-tuning,'' New J. Phys. 17, 033002 (2015).
 G. Chiribella, G. M. D'Ariano, and P. Perinotti, ``Quantum Circuit Architecture,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 060401 (2008).
 G. Chiribella, G. M. D'Ariano, and P. Perinotti, ``Memory Effects in Quantum Channel Discrimination,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180501 (2008).
 A. Bisio, G. Chiribella, G. D'Ariano, and P. Perinotti, ``Quantum networks: General theory and applications,'' . Acta Physica Slovaca. Reviews and Tutorials 61, 273–390 (2011).
 A. Bisio, G. M. D'Ariano, P. Perinotti, and M. Sedlák, ``Optimal processing of reversible quantum channels,'' Physics Letters A 378, 1797 – 1808 (2014).
 M. S. Leifer and R. W. Spekkens, ``Towards a formulation of quantum theory as a causally neutral theory of Bayesian inference,'' Phys. Rev. A 88, 052130 (2013).
 M. Ringbauer, C. J. Wood, K. Modi, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, and A. Fedrizzi, ``Characterizing Quantum Dynamics with Initial System-Environment Correlations,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 090402 (2015).
 F. A. Pollock, C. Rodríguez-Rosario, T. Frauenheim, M. Paternostro, and K. Modi, ``Non-Markovian quantum processes: Complete framework and efficient characterization,'' Phys. Rev. A 97, 012127 (2018).
 F. Costa and S. Shrapnel, ``Quantum causal modelling,'' New J. Phys. 18, 063032 (2016).
 J.-M. A. Allen, J. Barrett, D. C. Horsman, C. M. Lee, and R. W. Spekkens, ``Quantum Common Causes and Quantum Causal Models,'' Phys. Rev. X 7, 031021 (2017).
 R. W. Spekkens, ``Negativity and Contextuality are Equivalent Notions of Nonclassicality,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 020401 (2008).
 J. Pearl, Causality. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
 O. Oreshkov and C. Giarmatzi, ``Causal and causally separable processes,'' New J. Phys. 18, 093020 (2016).
 S. Durand, ``An amusing analogy: modelling quantum-type behaviours with wormhole-based time travel,'' Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics 4, S351 (2002).
 Ä. Baumeler and S. Wolf, ``The space of logically consistent classical processes without causal order,'' New J. Phys. 18, 013036 (2016).
 Ä. Baumeler, A. Feix, and S. Wolf, ``Maximal incompatibility of locally classical behavior and global causal order in multi-party scenarios,'' Phys. Rev. A 90, 042106 (2014).
 C. Branciard, M. Araújo, A. Feix, F. Costa, and Č. Brukner, ``The simplest causal inequalities and their violation,'' New J. Phys. 18, 013008 (2016).
 J. Friedman, M. S. Morris, I. D. Novikov, F. Echeverria, G. Klinkhammer, K. S. Thorne, and U. Yurtsever, ``Cauchy problem in spacetimes with closed timelike curves,'' Phys. Rev. D 42, 1915–1930 (1990).
 F. Echeverria, G. Klinkhammer, and K. S. Thorne, ``Billiard balls in wormhole spacetimes with closed timelike curves: classical theory,'' Phys. Rev. D 44, 1077–1099 (1991).
 M. Nielsen and I. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
 M. Scully and M. Zubairy, Quantum Optics. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
 E. G. Beltrametti and S. Bugajski, ``A classical extension of quantum mechanics,'' J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 28, 3329 (1995).
 M. Araújo, A. Feix, M. Navascués, and Č. Brukner, ``A purification postulate for quantum mechanics with indefinite causal order,'' Quantum 1, 10 (2017).
 Laurie Letertre, "The operational framework for quantum theories is both epistemologically and ontologically neutral", Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 89, 129 (2021).
 Peter D. Drummond and Margaret D. Reid, "Objective Quantum Fields, Retrocausality and Ontology", Entropy 23 6, 749 (2021).
 K. B. Wharton and N. Argaman, "Colloquium : Bell’s theorem and locally mediated reformulations of quantum mechanics", Reviews of Modern Physics 92 2, 021002 (2020).
 Emily Adlam, "Contextuality, Fine-Tuning and Teleological Explanation", Foundations of Physics 51 6, 106 (2021).
 Emily Adlam, "The Operational Choi–Jamiołkowski Isomorphism", Entropy 22 9, 1063 (2020).
 Germain Tobar and Fabio Costa, "Reversible dynamics with closed time-like curves and freedom of choice", Classical and Quantum Gravity 37 20, 205011 (2020).
 Simon Milz and Kavan Modi, "Quantum Stochastic Processes and Quantum non-Markovian Phenomena", PRX Quantum 2 3, 030201 (2021).
 Peter W. Evans, "The End of a Classical Ontology for Quantum Mechanics?", Entropy 23 1, 12 (2020).
 Debasis Mondal, Jaskaran Singh, and Dagomir Kaszlikowski, "Quantum instrumentality uniquely singles out nonlocal advantage of quantum coherence", Physical Review A 104 4, 042407 (2021).
 Michael Silberstein, William Mark Stuckey, and Timothy McDevitt, "Beyond Causal Explanation: Einstein’s Principle Not Reichenbach’s", Entropy 23 1, 114 (2021).
 Graeme D. Berk, Andrew J. P. Garner, Benjamin Yadin, Kavan Modi, and Felix A. Pollock, "Resource theories of multi-time processes: A window into quantum non-Markovianity", Quantum 5, 435 (2021).
 Simon Milz, Fattah Sakuldee, Felix A. Pollock, and Kavan Modi, "Kolmogorov extension theorem for (quantum) causal modelling and general probabilistic theories", Quantum 4, 255 (2020).
 Gerard Milburn and Sally Shrapnel, "Classical and Quantum Causal Interventions", Entropy 20 9, 687 (2018).
The above citations are from Crossref's cited-by service (last updated successfully 2022-09-24 04:49:07). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.
On SAO/NASA ADS no data on citing works was found (last attempt 2022-09-24 04:49:07).
This Paper is published in Quantum under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. Copyright remains with the original copyright holders such as the authors or their institutions.