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Proposal for witnessing non-classical light with the human eye

A. Dodel1, A. Mayinda1, E. Oudot1, A. Martin2, P. Sekatski3, J.-D. Bancal1, and N. Sangouard1

1Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
2Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Ch. de Pinchat 22, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
3Institut for Theoretische Physik, Universitat of Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria

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Abstract

We give a complete proposal showing how to detect the non-classical nature of photonic states with naked eyes as detectors. The enabling technology is a sub-Poissonian photonic state that is obtained from single photons, displacement operations in phase space and basic non-photon-number-resolving detectors. We present a detailed statistical analysis of our proposal including imperfect photon creation and detection and a realistic model of the human eye. We conclude that a few tens of hours are sufficient to certify non-classical light with the human eye with a p-value of 10%.

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Cited by

[1] Pavel Sekatski, Enky Oudot, Patrik Caspar, Rob Thew, and Nicolas Sangouard, "Benchmarking single-photon sources from an auto-correlation measurement", Quantum 6, 875 (2022).

[2] Hou Shun Poh, Alessandro Cerè, Jean-Daniel Bancal, Yu Cai, Nicolas Sangouard, Valerio Scarani, and Christian Kurtsiefer, "Experimental many-pairs nonlocality", Physical Review A 96 2, 022101 (2017).

[3] M. Loulakis, G. Blatsios, C. S. Vrettou, and I. K. Kominis, "Quantum Biometrics with Retinal Photon Counting", Physical Review Applied 8 4, 044012 (2017).

[4] Dusan Sarenac, Connor Kapahi, Andrew E. Silva, David G. Cory, Ivar Taminiau, Benjamin Thompson, and Dmitry A. Pushin, "Direct discrimination of structured light by humans", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117 26, 14682 (2020).

[5] A. Pedram, Ö. E. Müstecaplıoğlu, and I. K. Kominis, "Using quantum states of light to probe the retinal network", Physical Review Research 4 3, 033060 (2022).

[6] Lea Gassab, Ali Pedram, and Özgür E. Müstecaplıoğlu, "Conditions on detecting tripartite entangled state in psychophysical experiments", The European Physical Journal Plus 139 5, 379 (2024).

[7] A. Margaritakis, G. Anyfantaki, K. Mouloudakis, A. Gratsea, and I. K. Kominis, "Spatially selective and quantum-statistics-limited light stimulus for retina biometrics and pupillometry", Applied Physics B 126 6, 99 (2020).

[8] D. Sarenac, A. E. Silva, C. Kapahi, D. G. Cory, B. Thompson, and D. A. Pushin, "Human psychophysical discrimination of spatially dependant Pancharatnam–Berry phases in optical spin-orbit states", Scientific Reports 12 1, 3245 (2022).

[9] Iannis Kominis, Michail Loulakis, and Özgur E. Müstecaplıoğlu, Recent Advances in Biometrics (2022) ISBN:978-1-80355-456-3.

[10] Iannis K. Kominis and Michail Loulakis, "Quantum advantage in biometric authentication with single photons", Journal of Applied Physics 131 8, 084401 (2022).

The above citations are from Crossref's cited-by service (last updated successfully 2024-06-18 11:56:07) and SAO/NASA ADS (last updated successfully 2024-06-18 11:56:08). The list may be incomplete as not all publishers provide suitable and complete citation data.